Geographical distribution and hosts of the cestode Paranoplocephala omphalodes (Hermann, 1783) Lühe, 1910 in Russia and adjacent territories
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Paranoplocephala omphalodes is a widespread parasite of voles. Low morphological variability within the genus Paranoplocephala has led to erroneous identification of P. omphalodes a wide range of definitive hosts. The use of molecular methods in the earlier investigations has confirmed that P. omphalodes parasitizes four vole species in Europe. We studied the distribution of P. omphalodes in Russia and Kazakhstan using molecular tools. The study of 3248 individuals of 20 arvicoline species confirmed a wide distribution of P. omphalodes. Cestodes of this species were found in Microtus arvalis, M. levis, M. agrestis, Arvicola amphibius, and also in Chionomys gud. Analysis of the mitochondrial gene cox1 variability revealed a low haplotype diversity in P. omphalodes in Eurasia.
KeywordsParanoplocephala omphalodes Cestodes Voles Haplotype cox1 Eurasia
We are grateful to Heikki Henttonen (Luke: Natural Resources Institute Finland) for collecting materials from Finland and also to Voitto Haukisalmi (DB, University of Helsinki, Finland) for helpful discussions. We thank the two anonymous reviewers for providing valuable comments that greatly improved the manuscript.
The study was financially supported by the Federal Fundamental Scientific Research Program (Russia) for 2013–2020 (АААА-А16-116121410123-1) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (no. 17-04-00269 А).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Voles were trapped using snap traps and live traps. All traps were checked twice daily. Live animals were euthanized with chloroform inhalation immediately after the capturing. The present research has met the requirements guided by the order of the High and Middle Education Ministry (Rules of work with the use of experimental animals, no. 742 from 13.11.1984) and additionally by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation no. 498-FZ from 19.12.2018 (On responsible treatment of animals).
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