Inhibitory activity of chitosan nanoparticles against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts
- 52 Downloads
Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous harsh protozoan parasite that resists many disinfectants. It remains viable and infective for a long time in water and food causing global outbreaks. Chitosan (the deacetylated chitin molecule) was used in its nanosuspension form to evaluate its effect against Cryptosporidium parvum. The experiments were performed in vitro in serial concentrations and confirmed in mice in vivo infectivity assay. Chitosan nanoparticles (Cs NPs) were toxic to Cryptosporidium oocysts. The effect appeared to decrease the number of Cryptosporidium oocysts and altered their content. The destruction rate of oocysts was dependent on the dose of chitosan and the time of exposure (P < 0.05). Higher doses of Cs NPs over a prolonged period exhibited a significantly higher destruction rate. Using staining and light microscopy, remarkable destructive changes were observed in the oocysts’ morphology. The minimal lethal dose for > 90% of oocysts was 3000 μg/ml, no mice infections in vivo were observed. The results in this study elucidate Cs NPs as an effective anti-cryptosporidial agent.
KeywordsCryptosporidium Chitosan In vitro Nanoparticles Bioassay Activity
Compliance with ethical standards
The protocols for sample collection, the laboratory animal housing and inoculations were reviewed and approved by the Scientific Research Committee and Bioethics Board of Suez Canal University, Faculty of Medicine, Ismailia, Egypt.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abebe LS, Su Y-H, Guerrant RL, Swami NS, Smith AS (2015) Point-of-use removal of Cryptosporidium parvum from water: Independent effects of disinfection by silver nanoparticles and silver ions and by physical filtration in ceramic porous media. Environ Sci Technol 49:12958–12967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Castro-Hermida J, Porsi I, Ares-Mazas E, Chartier C (2004) In vitro activity on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst of different drugs with recognized anti-cryptosporidial efficacy. Rev Med Vet (Toulouse) 155:453–456Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2016) Hyperchlorination to kill Cryptosporidium when chlorine stabilizer 1 is NOT in water. USGoogle Scholar
- Checkley W, White AC, Jaganath D, Arrowood MJ, Chalmers RM, Chen X-M, Fayer R, Griffiths JK, Guerrant RL, Hedstrom L, Huston CD, Kotloff KL, Kang G, Mead JR, Miller M, Petri WA, Priest JW, Roos DS, Striepen B, Thompson RCA, Ward HD, Van Voorhis WA, Xiao L, Zhu G, Houpt ER (2015) A review of the global burden, novel diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for Cryptosporidium. Lancet Infect Dis 15:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finch GR, Daniels CW, Black EK, Schaefer FW 3rd, Belosevic M (1993) Dose response of Cryptosporidium parvum in outbred neonatal CD-1 mice. Pharm Res 16:1576–1581Google Scholar
- Henriksen SA, Pohlenz JF (1981) Staining of cryptosporidia by a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Acta Vet Scand 22:594–296Google Scholar
- Kotloff KL, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Farag TH, van Eijk A, Adegbola RA, Alonso PL, Breiman RF, Faruque AS, Saha D, Sow SO, Sur D, Zaidi AK, Biswas K, Panchalingam S, Clemens JD, Cohen D, Glass RI, Mintz ED, Sommerfelt H, Levine MM (2012) The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries: epidemiologic and clinical methods of the case/control study. Clin Infect Dis 55(Suppl 4):S232–S245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohammed M, Syeda J, Wasan K, Wasan E (2017) An overview of chitosan nanoparticles and its application in non-parenteral drug delivery. Pharmac 9:E53Google Scholar
- Muzzarelli RAA, Boudrant J, Meyer D, Manno N, DeMarchis M, Paoletti MG (2012) Current views on fungal chitin/chitosan, human chitinases, food preservation, glucans, pectins and inulin: a tribute to Henri Braconnot, precursor of the carbohydrate polymers science, on the chitin bicentennial. Carbohydr Polym 87:995–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tripathy S, Das S, Chakraborty SP, Sahu SK, Pramanik P, Roy S (2012) Synthesis, characterization of chitosan–tripolyphosphate conjugated chloroquine nanoparticle and its in vivo anti-malarial efficacy against rodent parasite: a dose and duration dependent approach. Int J Pharm 434:292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ungar BL, Burris JA, Quinn CA, Finkelman FD (1990) New mouse models for chronic Cryptosporidium infection in immunodeficient hosts. Infect Immun 58:961–969Google Scholar
- Wang J, Zeng ZW, Xiao RZ, Xie T, Zhou GL, Zhan XR, Wang SL (2011) Recent advances of chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers. Int J Nanomedicine 6:765–774Google Scholar
- Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N (2015) Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 233:1–43Google Scholar