New data on Myxobolus imparfinis (Cnidaria, Myxosporea): host, distribution, and ultrastructural morphology
A mass of free myxozoan spores was found in the gill filaments of specimens of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi Schubart and Gomes, 1959, popularly known as “three-barbeled catfishes” (Heptapteridae, Siluriformes) collected in streams of the Middle Paranapanema River, Upper Paraná River basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Morphological and molecular analysis identified the spores as Myxobolus imparfinis Vieira, Tagliavini, Abdallah and Azevedo, 2018. The ultrastructural morphology of this parasite is described here for the first time. Differences were observed in the number of coils of the polar filament as well as some organelles not previously described for this species. Asynchronous development was also observed, with the presence of both mature and immature spores. This is the first report of a myxozoan parasitizing C. iheringi and the first geographical record of myxozoan parasites in streams of the Middle Paranapanema River. The new data improve the original description of the species and add to the knowledge of host-parasite interactions and distribution.
KeywordsBrazilian catfish Heptapteridae Streams TEM Myxozoans
The anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their suggestions and remarks to improve the manuscript. We are grateful to Virgínia Sanches Uieda, Fernando Portella Rodrigues de Arruda, Sílvio César de Almeida, and Pedro Sartori Manoel for logistical support in the collection of hosts and taxonomic suggestions.
The authors would like to thank CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) and FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation) for financial and scientific support, and the post-graduate scholarships granted to L.F (CAPES/PNPD 17/2016); A.C.Z (FAPESP: 2016/07829–9); D.H.M.D.V. (FAPESP: 2015/24901–2). R.J.S. is supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) (309125/2017–0; PROTAX: 440496/2015–2), and FAPESP (2016/50377–1).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Barta JR, Martin DS, Liberator PA, Dashkevicz M, Anderson JW, Feighner SD, Elbrecht A, Perkins-Barrow A, Jenkins MC, Danforth HD, Ruff MD, Profous-Juchelka H (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among eight Eimeria species infecting domestic fowl inferred using complete small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. J Parasitol 83(2):262–271. https://doi.org/10.2307/3284453 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eschmeyer WN, Fricke R, van der Laan R (Eds) (2018) Catalog of fishes: genera, species, references. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Electronic version accessed in: Oct, 2018
- Froese R, Pauly D (2018) FishBase. Available at: (http://www.fishbase.org, version Electronic version accessed in: May, 2018
- Hallett SL, Hartigan A, Atkinson SD (2015) Myxozoans on the move: dispersal modes, exotic species and emerging diseases. In: Okamura B, Gruhl A, Bartholomew J (eds) Myxozoan evolution, ecology and development. Springer, Cham, pp 343–362. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14753-6_18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B, Meintjes P, Drummond A (2012) Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28:1647–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lom J, Arthur JR (1989) A guideline for the preparation of species descriptions in Myxosporea. J Fish Dis 12:151–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1989.tb00287.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molnár K, Ranzani-Paiva MJ, Eiras JC, Rodrigues EL (1998) Myxobolus macroplasmodialis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of the characid teleost, Salminus maxillosus, in Brazil. Acta Protozool 37:241–245Google Scholar
- Morsy K, Semmler M, Al-Olayan E, Mehlhorn H (2015) Testicular myxosporidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus bufonis (Myxobolidae) infecting the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis (Bufonidae). A light and electron microscopic study. Parasitol Res 114:3989–3997. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4626-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zatti SA, Atkinson SD, Maia AAM, Corrêa LL, Bartholomew JL, Adriano EA (2018) Novel Myxobolus and Ellipsomyxa species (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) parasiting Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Parasitol Int 67:612–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.06.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zatti SA, Naldoni J, Silva MR, Maia AA, Adriano EA (2015) Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) a parasite of Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil. Parasitol Int 64:362–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015.05.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar