Advertisement

Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Northern Italy

  • Benedetto MorandiEmail author
  • Sofia Bertaso
  • Gary Conboy
  • Andrea Gustinelli
  • Roberta Galuppi
  • Giovanni Tosi
  • Giovanni Poglayen
Helminthology - Short Communication

Abstract

Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, is a nematode parasite of wild and domestic canids belonging to the super-family Metastrongyloidea. A survey of infection was carried out examining 88 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) obtained during the regular hunting season (2014–2015) from the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Carcasses were stored frozen (− 21 °C) prior to necropsy. Lungs were examined for the presence of adult worms by dissection of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and then the lung tissue was examined for first-stage larvae (L1) by the Baermann method. No adult stages were detected, but L1, identified based on morphology as Crenosoma vulpis, were recovered from 28.4% (25/88) of the fox lungs. No significant differences in infection were found based on sex or geographical distribution. A brief review on C. vulpis report in red foxes in Italy and other European countries was also carried out.

Keywords

Red fox Vulpes vulpes Crenosoma vulpis Emilia-Romagna Italy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Anderson RC (2000) The superfamily Metastrongyloidea. In: Anderson RC, editor. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. 2nd edition CABI publishing, Wallingford Oxon (UK), p. 129Google Scholar
  2. Barutzki D (2013) Nematode infections of the respiratory tract in dogs in Germany. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 41:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barutzki D, Schaper R (2011) Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in Germany between 2003 and 2010. Parasitol Res 109(Suppl 1):S45–S60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bihr T, Conboy G (1999) Lungworm (Crenosoma vulpis) infection in dogs on Prince Edward Island. Can Vet J 40:555–559Google Scholar
  5. Borgsteede FH (1984) Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands. Z Parasitenkd 70:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brianti E, Arfuso F, Cringoli G, Di Cesare A, Falsone L, Ferroglio E, Frangipane Di Regalbono A, Gaglio G, Galuppi R, Genchi M, Iorio R, Kramer L, Lia RP, Manfredi MT, Morganti G, Perrucci S, Pessarin C, Poglayen G, Otranto D, Rinaldi L, Scala A, Solari Basano F, Varcasia A, Venco L, Veneziano V, Veronesi F, Zanet S, Zanzani SA (2018) Italian nationwide survey on endoparasites of dogs. XXX Congresso Nazionale SoIPa. p 45Google Scholar
  7. Bruẑinskaitè-Schmidhalter R, Ṡarkȗnas M, Malakauskas A, Mathis A, Torgerson PR, Deplazes P (2012) Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania. Parasitol 139:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carvalho-Varela M, Marcos MVM (1993) The helmintofauna of the fox (Vulpes vulpes silacea Miller, 1907) in Portugal. Acta Parasitol Port 1:73–79Google Scholar
  9. Conboy G (2009) Helminth parasites of the canine and feline respiratory tract. Vet Clin Small Anim 39:1109–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Conboy G, Bourque A, Miller L, Seewald W, Schenker R (2013) Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis. Vet Parasitol 198:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conboy G, Guselle N, Schaper R (2017) Spontaneous shedding of Metastrongyloid third-stage larvae by experimentally infected Limax maximus. Parasitol Res 116:S41–S54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson RK, Gjerde B, Vikøren T, Lillehaug A, Handeland K (2006) Prevalence of Trichinella larvae and extra-intestinal nematodes in Norwegian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Vet Parasitol 136:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hodžić A, Alić A, Klebić I, Kadrić M, Brianti E, Duschera GG (2016) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vet Parasitol 223:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeffery RA, Lankester MW, McGrath MJ, Whitney HG (2004) Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Newfoundland, Canada. Can J Zool 82:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kidawa D, Kowalczyk R (2011) The effects of sex, age, season and habitat on diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in northeastern Poland. Acta Theriol 56:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lacorcia L, Gasser RB, Anderson GA, Beveridge I (2009) Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid examination and other diagnostic techniques with the Baermann technique for detection of naturally occurring Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 235:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Latrofa MS, Lia RP, Giannelli A, Colella V, Santoro M, D’Alessio N, Campbell BE, Parisi A, Dantas-Torres F, Mutafchiev Y, Veneziano V, Otranto D (2015) Crenosoma vulpis in wild and domestic carnivores from Italy: a morphological and molecular study. Parasitol Res 114:3611–3617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maksimov P, Hermosilla C, Taubert A, Staubach C, Sauter-Louis C, Conraths FJ, Vrhovec MG, Pantchev N (2017) GIS-supported epidemiological analysis on canine Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infections in Germany. Parasit Vectors 10:108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Magi M, Guardone L, Prati MC, Mignone W, Macchioni F (2014) Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in north-west Italy. J Helminthol 89:506–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Manfredi MT, Giacometti A, Fraquelli C, Piccolo G (2003) Study of the helminthic population of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Trentino Alto-Adige. J Mt Ecol 7:261–263.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06272-3 Google Scholar
  21. McGarry JW, Morgan ER (2009) Identification of first-stage larvae of metastrongyles from dogs. Vet Rec 165:258–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morelli S, Grillotti E, Russi I, Manzocchi S, Beraldo P, Viglietti A, Crisi PE, Pezzuto C, De Tommaso C, Pampurini F, Traversa D (2018) Large scale survey on the occurrence of canine and feline extra-intestinal nematodes in Italy. XXX Congresso Nazionale SoIPa, p. 131Google Scholar
  23. Poli A, Arispici M, Marconcini A, Mancianti F, Corsi C (1985) Lungworms in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the maritime provinces of Tuscany. Erkrankungen der Zootiere Akademie Verlag, Berlin, pp 507–512Google Scholar
  24. Rajković-Janje R, Marinculić A, Bosnić S, Benić M, Vincović B, Mihaljević Ž (2002) Prevalence and seasonal distribution of helminth parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Zagreb County (Croatia). Z Jagdwiss 48:151–160Google Scholar
  25. Rossi L, Iori A, Cancrini G (1983) Observations on the parasitic fauna of red fox population present in the regional park “La Mandria”. Parassitologia 25:340–343Google Scholar
  26. Saeed I, Maddox-Hyttel C, Monrad J, Kapel C (2006) Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. Vet Parasitol 139:168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Segovia JM, Torres J, Miquel J (2004) Helminth parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L., 1758) in the Iberian Peninsula: an ecological study. Acta Parasitol 49:67–79Google Scholar
  28. Sréter T, Széll Z, Marucci G, Pozio E, Varga I (2003) Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. Vet Parasitol 115:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tolnai Z, Széll Z, Sréter T (2015) Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Hungary. Vet Parasitol 207:355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toso S, Turra T, Gellini S, Matteucci C, Benassi MC, Zanni ML (1999) Vulpes vulpes. In Carta delle vocazioni faunistiche della regione Emilia-Romagna. Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica S.T.E.R.N.A. pp 239–245Google Scholar
  31. Traversa D, Di Cesare A, Conboy G (2010) Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated. Parasit Vectors 3:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benedetto Morandi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sofia Bertaso
    • 1
  • Gary Conboy
    • 2
  • Andrea Gustinelli
    • 1
  • Roberta Galuppi
    • 1
  • Giovanni Tosi
    • 3
  • Giovanni Poglayen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medical SciencesAlma Mater Studiorum University of BolognaOzzano EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and MicrobiologyAtlantic Veterinary CollegeCharlottetownCanada
  3. 3.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna “Bruno Ubertini”(IZSLER)ForlìItaly

Personalised recommendations