Helminth infections of wild European gray wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in Lower Saxony, Germany, and comparison to captive wolves
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This study aimed to investigate the endoparasite fauna of wild European gray wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany. In total, 69 fecal samples of wild wolves were collected in Lower Saxony, Germany, from 2013 to 2015, analyzed by the sedimentation-flotation and McMaster techniques and compared to previous results on captive European Gray wolves living in zoological gardens in Germany. In addition to coproscopy, taeniid-positive samples from wild as well as captive wolves were differentiated by amplification and sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene fragments. Missing Taenia krabbei SSU rRNA reference sequences were generated from two T. krabbei specimens. Overall, 60.87% (42/69) of wild wolve samples were microscopically positive for at least one of seven egg types. Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. showed the highest frequency (31.88% [22/69]), followed by Taeniidae (21.74% [15/69]), Ancylostomatidae (20.29% [14/69]), Alaria alata (15.94% [11/69]), Toxocara canis (13.04% [9/69]), and Toxascaris leonina and Trichuris vulpis (each 5.80% [4/69]). Amplification of SSU rRNA was successful for 7/15 Taeniidae-positive samples from wild and 20/39 samples from captive wolves, revealing T. hydatigena in two and 14 samples, respectively. Taenia krabbei was detected in two further samples of wild and three samples of captive wolves, while for the remaining samples, no differentiation between T. serialis/T. krabbei was possible. Echinococcus spp. were not detected. Sequence comparisons revealed that the SSU rRNA gene fragment was not suitable to differentiate between T. serialis and T. krabbei. Therefore, the use of this fragment alone cannot be recommended for species identification in future studies.
KeywordsCanis lupus lupus Coproscopy Taeniids Taeniidae Taenia Echinococcus
Eggs per gram feces
NADH dehydrogenase 1
- SSU rRNA
Small subunit ribosomal RNA
The authors wish to thank Ines Lesniak and Heribert Hofer (Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany) for providing the DNA of Taenia krabbei as well as the Friedrich-Löffler-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Insel Riems, Germany, for providing the E. multilocularis DNA used as positive control in the multiplex DNA. The authors are grateful to Ursula Küttler for the excellent technical assistance.
JDB collected parts of the fecal samples and carried out coproscopical analyses. EJ and AS performed the molecular analyses. JDB and AS performed the statistical analyses. CS and MB designed and coordinated the study. JDB, AS, and CS drafted the manuscript. All authors participated in the data interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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