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Parasitology Research

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 203–217 | Cite as

Exploring the genetic diversity of Tylodelphys (Diesing, 1850) metacercariae in the cranial and body cavities of Mexican freshwater fishes using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences, with the description of a new species

  • Ana L. Sereno-Uribe
  • Leopoldo Andrade-Gómez
  • Gerardo Pérez Ponce de León
  • Martín García-VarelaEmail author
Genetics, Evolution, and Phylogeny - Original Paper

Abstract

Members of the genus Tylodelphys Diesing, 1850 are endoparasites of fish-eating birds, particularly ciconiids, anhingids, and podicipedids across the globe. Metacercariae of Tylodelphys spp. were collected from the cranial and body cavities of freshwater fishes in central and northern Mexico; adults were recovered from the intestine of two species of freshwater diving birds of the family Podicipedidae, commonly known as grebes, in two locations of central Mexico. Specimens were sequenced for two molecular markers, the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) plus 5.8S gene of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 from mitochondrial DNA. The genetic divergence among the 25 samples (16 metacercariae and 9 adults) and between the newly sequenced specimens and those deposited in the GenBank were estimated. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses inferred with each data set revealed the existence of five genetic lineages. Eight metacercariae analyzed in this study were nested in two divergent lineages previously recognized as Tylodelphys sp. 5 and Tylodelphys sp. 6 (sensu Locke et al., Int J Parasitol, 45:841–855, 2015). Five adult specimens recovered from the intestine of the least grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus Linnaeus, 1766) in Tecocomulco Lake, Hidalgo State, nested in a single clade with other sequences identified previously as Tylodelphys aztecae, expanding its distribution range in other areas of central Mexico. The isolates of the metacercariae found in the cranial cavity of the shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum Valenciennes, 1835 from Zacapu Lake in central Mexico formed a monophyletic lineage and were recognized as an undescribed species of Tylodelphys. The lack of adult specimens of this lineage in our samples prevented a formal description. However, the metacercariae collected in the cranial cavity of the silverside, Chirostoma jordani Woolman, 1894 and the adult specimens recovered from the intestine of the western grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence, 1858) from Cuitzeo Lake formed a monophyletic clade, allowing us to link both stages of the life cycle and to describe this as a new species, Tylodelphys kuerepus n. sp. The new species represents the eighth species of the genus described in the Americas and the fourth in the Nearctic region. We briefly discuss the ecological associations between the metacercariae and their second intermediate hosts in relation to the genetic diversity patterns uncovered in our study.

Keywords

Digenea Tylodelphys Central Mexico Species description Cox 1 ITS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Luis García Prieto for providing specimens deposited at the CNHE, Berenit Mendoza for her help in obtaining the scanning electron microphotographs, and Laura Márquez for her help with the automatic sequencer. Specimens were collected under the Cartilla Nacional de Colector Científico (FAUT 0202 and 0057) issued by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) to MGV and GPPL, respectively. The permission to use a shotgun to collect birds was issued by the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional. This research was partially supported by grants from the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Inovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT-UNAM) IN206716 and IN202617 to MGV and GPPL, respectively; LAG thanks the support of the Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, UNAM, and CONACYT for granting a scholarship to complete his PhD program.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCiudad UniversitariaMexicoMexico
  2. 2.Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCiudad UniversitariaMexicoMexico

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