Clone-based haplotyping of Giardia intestinalis assemblage B human isolates
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The level of genetic variability of Giardia intestinalis clinical isolates is an intensively studied and discussed issue within the scientific community. Our collection of G. intestinalis human isolates includes six in vitro-cultured isolates from assemblage B, with extensive genetic variability. Such variability prevents the precise genotype characterisation by the multi-locus genotyping (MLG) method commonly used for assemblage A. It was speculated that the intra-assemblage variations represent a reciprocal genetic exchange or true mixed infection. Thus, we analysed gene sequences of the molecular clones of the assemblage B isolates, each representing a single DNA molecule (haplotype) to determine whether the polymorphisms are present within individual haplotypes. Our results, which are based on the analysis of three standard genetic markers (bg, gdh, tpi), point to haplotype diversity and show numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mostly in codon wobble positions. We do not support the recombinatory origin of the detected haplotypes. The point mutations tolerated by mismatch repair are the possible cause for the detected sequence divergence. The precise sub-genotyping of assemblage B will require finding more conservative genes, as the existing ones are hypervariable in most isolates and prevent their molecular and epidemiological characterisation.
KeywordsAssemblage B Giardia intestinalis Genetic variability Haplotypes Molecular cloning
This study was supported by the Czech Health Research Council (Grant No. 15-33369A).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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