Parasitology Research

, Volume 118, Issue 2, pp 389–397 | Cite as

Myiasis in humans—a global case report evaluation and literature analysis

  • Victoria BernhardtEmail author
  • Fabian Finkelmeier
  • Marcel A. Verhoff
  • Jens Amendt
Arthropods and Medical Entomology - Review


Myiasis refers to the infestation of living humans and vertebrates with fly larvae that feed on necrotic or vital tissue of the host. Since the invasion of new fly species in Europe is currently being observed, which live obligatorily parasitically or are close relatives of such species, the aim of this study is to obtain a global overview of the distribution of myiasis-causing fly species in times of climate change and to assess the possible consequences for Western Europe. A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed/Medline for the years 1997 to 2017 and a total of 464 international case reports from 79 countries were evaluated. The described cases were caused by 41 different species. In 99.4% of the cases, it was a colonization by just one species, a maximum of three species were detected in a human. Casuistics from Western Europe mostly describe myiasis as a “holiday souvenir” from tropical regions. Reports of autochthonous cases are rare in comparison to other regions. With regard to rising temperatures and the invasion of new fly species, a noticeable increase in the number of cases in Western Europe is to be assumed, which could be an increasing problem in the clinical area and in care, which is why thorough monitoring for professional identification and treatment seems important in the future.


Parasitism Neglect Climate change Global warming Flies 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests

Supplementary material

436_2018_6145_MOESM1_ESM.docx (73 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 72 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Legal MedicineUniversity Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-UniversityFrankfurtGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medicine I, GastroenterologyUniversity Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-UniversityFrankfurtGermany

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