Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 11, pp 3669–3674 | Cite as

First surveillance and molecular identification of the Cryptosporidium skunk genotype and Cryptosporidium parvum in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Osaka, Japan

  • Koji Hattori
  • Takuto Donomoto
  • Tilusha Manchanayake
  • Tomoyuki Shibahara
  • Kazumi Sasai
  • Makoto MatsubayashiEmail author
Short Communication


Recent research suggests that raccoons (Procyon lotor) can transmit several important pathogens affecting humans, including protozoans. In Japan, the number of wild raccoons has increased since they were first introduced more than 50 years ago. Here, we report the first survey of Cryptosporidium infection using fecal swabs of raccoons captured in Osaka, Japan. Of 116 raccoons examined by PCR targeting of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene, 7 (6.03%; 2 adults and 5 young animals) were positive, and the isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium skunk genotype (subtype XVIa) and C. parvum based on sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Both species and the genotype are zoonotic; thus, our results suggest that raccoons could transmit Cryptosporidium infections to humans in Japan.


Cryptosporidium skunk genotype Cryptosporidium parvum Osaka Procyon lotor Raccoon 



We thank Mrs. Rika Sekiguchi (Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan) for assistance in conducting molecular examinations.

Funding information

This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (nos. 16 K15049 and 16H05803).

Compliance with ethical standards

All examinations in this study were permitted by the government and conducted as a part of government affairs. No human participants were involved in this study. Thus, ethical approval of animal experimentation was not necessary. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Osaka Livestock Hygiene Service CenterIzumisanoJapan
  2. 2.Veterinary Research InstitutePeradeniyaSri Lanka
  3. 3.National Agricultural and Food Research OrganizationNational Institute of Animal HealthTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesOsaka Prefecture UniversityOsakaJapan

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