Zoonotic Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in different types of dogs
Dogs can carry and share zoonotic pathogens with humans. This problem is understudied in different parts of the world, including Jordan. This study determined the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, and Borrelia burgdorferi using the SNAP 4Dx Plus test and spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) using enzyme immunoassay IgG test in different types of dogs (farm/breeding, police, and stray) in Jordan. The results showed a very high seroprevalence (87%) of SFGR in dogs all over Jordan. Specifically, the seroprevalence was 97.0, 90.5 and 71.2% in farm, stray, and police dogs, respectively. Overall, 9.9% of dogs were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum. Specifically, 14.9% of farm, 14.3% of stray, and 0% of police dogs were seropositive. None of the studied dogs had D. immitis, E. canis, or B. burgdorferi. It can be concluded that SFGR and A. phagocytophilum are endemic in Jordan. This study suggests that controlling stray dogs and monitoring dog breeding farms should be considered as control measures to limit the transmission of SFGR and A. phagocytophilum and to limit their public health impact in Jordan. Moreover, further follow-up studies are needed to study these pathogens in the human population in Jordan.
KeywordsMosquitoes Ticks Zoonoses One Health Middle East Jordan
This study was supported by the Deanship of Research at the Jordan University of Science and Technology (Project 100/2015). The authors acknowledge Alaa E. Bani Salman and Amany K. Rashaideh for their support in implementing this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. All dog owners were briefed regarding the study objectives. It was emphasized to the dog owners/guardians that this study is for research purposes. It was also emphasized that their decision to allow sampling from their animals is completely voluntarily and their decision would not affect needed veterinary care of their animals. To achieve proper collection and to gain access to dog farms, private veterinarians assisted the researchers in blood collection and interviews.
- Benelli G (2018) Managing mosquitoes and ticks in a rapidly changing world—facts and trends. Saudi J Biol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.06.007
- Cardoso L, Mendao C, Madeira de Carvalho L (2012) Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal--a national serological study. Parasit Vectors 5:62. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-62 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Chandrashekar R, Mainville CA, Beall MJ, O'Connor T, Eberts MD, Alleman AR, Gaunt SD, Breitschwerdt EB (2010) Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Am J Vet Res 71:1443–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goldstein RE, Eberts MD, Beall MJ, Thatcher B, Chandrashekar R, Alleman AR (2014) Performance comparison of SNAP® 4Dx® Plus and AccuPlex®4 for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Int J Appl Res Vet M 12:141–147Google Scholar
- Levin ML, Killmaster LF, Zemtsova GE, Ritter JM, Langham G (2014) Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite. PLoS One 9(12):e115105. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115105 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mircean V, Dumitrache MO, Györke A, Pantchev N, Jodies R, Mihalca AD, Cozma V (2012) Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:595–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pantchev N, Schaper R, Limousin S, Norden N, Weise M, Lorentzen L (2009) Occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs in France: results of a countrywide serologic survey. Parasitol Res 105(Suppl 1):S101–S114CrossRefGoogle Scholar