Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

New techniques to collect live Sarcoptes scabiei and evaluation of methods as alternative diagnostics for infection

  • 410 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread, highly contagious skin disease that affects many mammals including humans. The biological characteristics of S. scabiei remain unclear. Therefore, the ability to collect adequate amount of mites for studies is required to advance our understanding of the parasite. The present study aimed to find a method to collect an adequate amount of live S. scabiei mites within a short time frame. The cornified layer and fur from an infected raccoon dog were inserted into a 50-ml catheter tip-type syringe. A 1.5-ml microtube was attached at the tip of the syringe to collect the mites, which crawled out from the cornified layer and fur. Four conditions were examined, and the following condition was determined to be the best: the syringe and microtube were shaded by aluminum foil, and the microtube was heated using a pet heater (36 °C). In addition, the effectiveness of this method as an alternative method to diagnose S. scabiei infections in animal was evaluated. S. scabiei live mites were not detected in the raccoon dog samples 24 h after the administration of medication (ivermectin or selamectin). The present study revealed that this technique was useful to collect adequate amounts of live mites, and the mites prefer a heated environment and actively move when using the shaded conditions. In addition, this technique was effective as an alternative diagnostic technique to detect live mites on an animal body.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Alasaad S, Permunian R, Gakuya F, Mutinda M, Soriguer RC, Rossi L (2010) Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife. BMC Vet Res 8:e110

  2. Alasaad S, Rossi L, Heukelbach J, Pérez JM, Hamarsheh O, Otiende M, Zhu XQ (2013) The neglected navigating web of the incomprehensibly emerging and re-emerging Sarcoptes mite. Infect Genet Evol 17:253–259

  3. Arlian LG, Runyan RA, Achar S, Estes SA (1984) Survival and infestivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis. J Am Acad Dermatol 11:210–215

  4. Bornstein S, Thebo P, Zakrisson G (1996) Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of canine sarcoptic mange. Vet Dermatol 7:21–28

  5. Bornstein S, Mörner T, Samuel WM (2001) Sarcoptes scabiei and sarcoptic mange. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic disease of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, pp 107–119

  6. Engelman D, Kiang K, Chosidow O, McCarthy J, Fuller C, Lammie P, Hay R, Steer A, on behalf of the members of the international alliance for the control of scabies (2013) Toward the global control of human scabies: introducing the international alliance for the control of scabies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2167

  7. Flinders DC, De Schweinitz P (2004) Pediculosis and scabies. Am Fam Physician 69:341–348

  8. Rambozzi L, Menzano A, Lavin S, Rossi L (2004) Biotin-avidin amplified ELISA for detection of antibodies to Sarcoptes scabieis in chamois (Rupicapra spp.). Vet Res 35:701–708

  9. Sivajothi S, Sudhakara Reddy B, Rayulu VC, Sreedevi C (2015) Notoedres cati in cats and its management. J Parasit Dis 39:303–305

  10. Soglia D, Rambozzi L, Maione S, Spalenza V, Sartore S, Alasaad S, Sacchi P, Rossi L (2009) Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction. Parasitol Res 105:1465–1468

  11. Van der Heijden HM, Rambags PG, Elbers AR, van Maanen C, Hunneman WA (2000) Validation of ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to Sarcoptes scabies in pigs. Vet Parasitol 89:95–107

  12. Walton SF, Currie BJ (2007) Problems in diagnosing scabies, a global disease in human and animal populations. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:268–279

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Nobuhide Kido.

Ethics declarations

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kido, N., Akuta, T., Tarui, H. et al. New techniques to collect live Sarcoptes scabiei and evaluation of methods as alternative diagnostics for infection. Parasitol Res 116, 1039–1042 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5385-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alternative diagnostic technique
  • Characteristics of the Sarcoptes scabiei mites
  • Mite extraction
  • Raccoon dog
  • Scabicidal agent