Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) from Kunming, China

Abstract

Despite the importance of worldwide goat production, little is known about the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) in China. The aims of the present study were to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats in Kunming, China, as well as to identify parasite species based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. Only microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 174 of 225 goats (77.3 %). By light and transmission electron microscopy, two species, i.e., Sarcocystis capracanis and Sarcocystis hircicanis, were identified. Two sarcocysts from each of the two species were randomly selected for DNA extraction; the 18S rRNA gene (18S rRNA), the 28S rRNA gene (28S rRNA), and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced. The results were compared with other previously sequenced Sarcocystis species retrieved from GenBank. There was little sequence variation between two isolates of the same species. S. capracanis was most closely related with Sarcocystis tenella; 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial cox1 sequences shared identities of 95.7–99.1, 95.3, and 92.3–93.2 % with those of S. tenella, respectively. Thus, mitochondrial cox1 sequences seem to perform better than 18S rRNA sequences or 28S rRNA sequences for identification of the two species. S. hircicanis was most closely related to Sarcocystis arieticanis, i.e., 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences of the former species shared 97.2–97.4 and 95.6–96.1 % identities with those of latter, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the three genetic markers yielded similar results and indicated the two species were within a group of Sarcocystis species with canines as known, or presumed, definitive hosts.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Abo-Shehada MN (1996) Age variations in the prevalence of sarcocystosis in sheep and goats from northern and central Jordan. Prev Vet Med 27:135–140. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(95)01007-6

  2. Claveria FG, Cruz MJ (2000) Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Parasitol Int 48:243–247. doi:10.1016/S1383-5769(99)00025-2

  3. Claveria FG, San-Pedro Lim R, Cruz-Flores MJ, Nagasawa H, Suzuki N, De La Pena C (2001) Ultrastructural studies of Sarcocystis cruzi (Hasselmann, 1926) Wenyon, 1926 infection in cattle (Bos taurus): Philippine cases. Parasite 8:251–254

  4. Claveria FG, San Pedro-Lim MR, Tan JE, Flores-Cruz MJ (2004) Sarcocystis capracanis infection in Philippine domestic goats (Capra hircus): ultrastructural studies. Philipp J Sci 133:33–37

  5. Cornaglia E, Giaccherino AR, Peracino V (1998) Ultrastructural morphology of sarcosporidiosis in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex). Vet Parasitol 75:21–32. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(97)00185-4

  6. Dafedar AM, D’Souza PE, Ananda KJ, Puttalakshmamma GC (2008) Prevalence of sarcocystosis in goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, Karnataka State. Vet World 1:335–337

  7. Dahlgren SS, Gjerde B (2010) Prevalence of sarcocystosis in goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, Karnataka State. Parasitology 137:815–840

  8. Dubey JP, Calero-Bernal R, Rosenthal BM, Speer CA, Fayer R (2016) Sarcocystosis of animals and humans, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

  9. Dubey JP, Rosenthal BM (2013) Sarcocystis capracanis-associated encephalitis in sheep. Vet Parasitol 197:407–408. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.04.027

  10. Fischer S, Odening K (1998) Characterization of bovine Sarcocystis species by analysis of their 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. J Parasitol 84:50–54. doi:10.2307/3284529

  11. Formisano P, Aldridge B, Alony Y, Beekhuis L, Davies E, Del Pozo J, Dunn K, English K, Morrison L, Sargison N, Seguino A, Summers BA, Wilson D, Milne E, Beard PM (2013) Identification of Sarcocystis capracanis in cerebrospinal fluid from sheep with neurological disease. Vet Parasitol 193:252–255. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.12.016

  12. Gjerde B (1985) Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Rangifer 5:43–52

  13. Gjerde B (2012) Morphological and molecular characterization and phylogenetic placement of Sarcocystis capreolicanis and Sarcocystis silva n. sp. from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Norway. Parasitol Res 110:1225–1237. doi:10.1007/s00436-011-2619-6

  14. Gjerde B (2013) Phylogenetic relationships among Sarcocystis species in cervids, cattle and sheep inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Int J Parasitol 43:579–591. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.02.004

  15. Gjerde B (2014) Sarcocystis species in red deer revisited: with a redescription of two known species as Sarcocystis elongata n. sp. and Sarcocystis truncata n. sp. based on mitochondrial cox1 sequences. Parasitology 141:441–452. doi:10.1017/S0031182013001819

  16. Gjerde B, Hilali M, Mawgood SA (2015) Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Parasitol Res 114:3401–3413. doi:10.1007/s00436-015-4566-0

  17. Gjerde B, Josefsen TD (2015) Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis lutrae n. sp. and Toxoplasma gondii from the musculature of two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in Norway. Parasitol Res 114:873–886. doi:10.1007/s00436-014-4251-8

  18. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98

  19. Kutty MK, Latif B, Muslim A, Hussaini J, Daher AM, Heo CC, Abdullah S (2015) Detection of sarcocystosis in goats in Malaysia by light microscopy, histology, and PCR. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:751–756. doi:10.1007/s11250-015-0789-4

  20. Latif BMA, Al-Delemi JK, Mohammed BS, Al-Bayati SM, Al-Amiry AM (1999) Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in meat-producing animals in Iraq. Vet Parasitol 84:85–90. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00046-1

  21. Medlin L, Elwood HJ, Stickel S, Sogin ML (1988) The characterization of enzymatically eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71:491–499. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90066-2

  22. Morsy K, Saleh A, Al-Ghamdi A, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Al-Rasheid K, Bashtar AR, Al Quraishy S, Mehlhorn H (2011) Prevalence pattern and biology of Sarcocystis capracanis infection in the Egyptian goats: a light and ultrastructural study. Vet Parasitol 181:75–82. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.05.010

  23. Mugridge NB, Morrison DA, Heckeroth AR, Johnson AM, Tenter AM (1999) Phylogenetic analysis based on full-length large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence comparison reveals that Neospora caninum is more closely related to Hammondia heydorni than to Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol 29:1545–1556

  24. Odening K (1998) The present state of species-systematics in Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882 (Protista, Sporozoa, Coccidia). Syst Parasitol 41:209–233. doi:10.1023/A:1006090232343

  25. Odening K, Rudolph M, Quandt S, Bengis RG, Bockhardt I, Viertel D (1998) Sarcocystis spp. in antelopes from southern Africa. Acta Protozool 37:149–158

  26. Odening K, Stolte M, Bockhardt I (1996a) Sarcocysts in exotic Caprinae (Bovidae) from zoological gardens. Acta Parasitol 41:67–75

  27. Odening K, Stolte M, Bockhardt I (1996b) On the diagnostics of Sarcocystis in chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Appl Parasitol 37:153–160

  28. Odening K, Stolte M, Lux E, Bockhardt I (1996c) The Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa, Bovidae) as an intermediate host of three Sarcocystis species in Mongolia. Appl Parasitol 37:54–65

  29. Odening K, Stolte M, Walter G, Bockhardt I (1995) Cyst wall ultrastructure of two Sarcocystis spp. from European mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon) in Germany compared with domestic sheep. J Wildl Dis 31:550–554. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-31.4.550

  30. Odening K, Wesemeier HH, Pinkowski M, Walter G, Sedlaczek J, Bockhardt I (1994) European hare and European rabbit (Lagomorpha) as intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis species (Sporozoa) in central Europe. Acta Protozool 33:177–189

  31. Saito M, Shibata Y, Itagaki H (1995) Sarcocystis capracanis and S. hircicanis from goats in Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 44:391–395

  32. Saito M, Shibata Y, Kobayashi T, Kobayashi M, Kubo M, Itagaki H (1996) Ultrastructure of the cyst wall of Sarcocystis species with canine final host in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 58:861–867. doi:10.1292/jvms.58.861

  33. Shekarforoush SS, Razavi SM, Dehghan SA, Sarihi K (2005) Prevalence of Sarcocystis species in slaughtered goats in Shiraz, Iran. Vet Rec 156:418–420. doi:10.1136/vr.156.13.418

  34. Stolte M, Odening K, Bockhardt I (1996a) Antelopes (Bovidae) kept in European zoological gardens as intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis species. Parassitologia 38:565–570

  35. Stolte M, Odening K, Walter G, Bockhardt I (1996b) The raccoon as intermediate host of three Sarcocystis species in Europe. J Helminthol Soc Wash 63:145–149

  36. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst197

  37. Vlemmas I, Kanakoudis G, Tsangaris T, Theodorides I, Kaldrymidou E (1989) Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis tenella (Sarcocystis ovicanis). Vet Parasitol 33:207–217. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(89)90130-1

  38. Xiang Z, He Y, Zhao H, Rosenthal BM, Dunams DB, Li X, Zuo Y, Feng G, Cui L, Yang Z (2011) Sarcocystis cruzi: comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes. Exp Parasitol 127:460–466. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2010.10.012

  39. Yang ZQ, Zuo YX, Yao YG, Chen XW, Yang GC, Zhang YP (2001) Analysis of the 18S rRNA genes of Sarcocystis species suggests that the morphologically similar organisms from cattle and water buffalo should be considered the same species. Mol Biochem Parasitol 115:283–288. doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(01)00283-3

Download references

Acknowledgments

Financial support for this study was provided by the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (grant 31460557).

Author information

Correspondence to Jun-Jie Hu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hu, J., Liu, T., Liu, Q. et al. Prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) from Kunming, China. Parasitol Res 115, 3973–3981 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5163-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Goat
  • Sarcocystis
  • Prevalence
  • Molecular characteristics
  • China