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Characterization, mode of action, and efficacy of twelve silica-based acaricides against poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in vitro

Abstract

Poultry red mite infestation still is an unsolved problem in poultry farms. Legal regulations, residue risks, and resistances limit chemical control of mites. Alternatives to chemical acaricides for control of poultry red mite are silica-based products, which have as a main constituent silicon dioxide. The acaricidal effect is attributed to sorptive properties of the particles, which result in the mite’s death by desiccation. In the present study, the acaricidal efficacy of 12 products containing natural or synthetic silica, 9 in powder form, and 3 for liquid application was tested under laboratory conditions. Mite mortality was measured at several intervals and the mean lethal time (LT50) determined by Probit analysis after Abbott’s correction. The LT50 values of the products significantly differed (Tukey’s HSD p < 0.05). LT50 values of powdery formulations ranged from 5.1 to 18.7 h and overlapped with those of the fluid ones which ranged from 5.5 to 12.7 h. In order to explain the differences in efficacy of the tested silica products, further characterizations were carried out. X-ray fluorescence, specific surface, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and water absorption capacity (WAC) were measured. Furthermore, electron microscopy was conducted and different products compared. Silicon dioxide content (ranging from 65 to 89 % for powders and 57 to 80 % for fluids) had no significant impact on efficacy, while specific surface and CEC (2.4–23.2 mEq 100−1 g−1 for powders and 18–30.8 mEq 100−1 g−1) were positively and WAC (1.3–4.4 wt% for powders and 3.3–4.8 wt% for fluids) negatively related to the acaricidal efficacy. Influence of these parameters on acaricidal efficacy was significant according to the results of a stepwise regression analysis (p < 0.01).

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Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. Hiepe from the Department of Molecular Parasitology (HU Berlin) and Dr. Liebisch from Zecklab (Burgwedel) for supporting this research. The authors wish to express appreciation to the Federal Programme for Organic and Sustainable Farming (BÖLN), which supported this work.

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Correspondence to Christian Ulrichs.

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Schulz, J., Berk, J., Suhl, J. et al. Characterization, mode of action, and efficacy of twelve silica-based acaricides against poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in vitro. Parasitol Res 113, 3167–3175 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-3978-6

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Keywords

  • Dermanyssus gallinae
  • Acaricides
  • Silicon dioxide
  • Red poultry mite
  • Diatomaceous earth
  • Poultry mite