Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Morpho-functional characteristics of the scolex of Wardium chaunense (Cestoda: Aploparaksidae) penetrated into host intestine

Abstract

The scoleces of Wardium chaunense penetrated into the intestinal wall of a snipe (Gallinago gallinago) were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. Naturally, the scolex is characterised by a shorter length in comparison with when it is removed from the host. Ultrastructural characteristics of the main parts of the scolex, such as suckers, rostellum and rostellar sac are reported. Partial degradation of the radial muscles of the suckers is clearly recognised; this can be the result of a deep penetration of the scolex into the mucosa and subsequent loss of attachment function by suckers. The muscular walls of the rostellum and rostellar sac have a structure of the same type: an outer longitudinal layer of muscles is separated from the inner circular one with a thin basal matrix, which, also, surrounds each muscular fibre of the circular layer. Circular fibres consist of mutually perpendicular myofibrils, connected with the basal matrix by hemidesmosomes. Microtriches, covering the tegument, vary in shape in different regions of the scolex. They are absent on the apical part of the rostellum, and are slightly curved and can be considered as belonging to the fixative type on the suckers. Special sensory endings with a dense central body and without cilia are situated at the distal cytoplasm of the tegument of the suckers. Two glands, having the same syncytial structure, are disposed inside the rostellum and rostellar sac. Erythroid granules produced by the glands are released during an apocrine process into the host–parasite contact zone. Secretions of the cestode tegument in the form of vesicles and bubbles of granular material were also observed. It is suggested that the scolex attachment method of W. chaunense has the tendency of ‘anchoring’, which is an irreversible attachment used by some cestode parasites of the snipe.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Andersen K (1975) Ultrastructural studies on Diphyllobothrium ditremum and D. dendriticum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea), with emphasis on the scolex tegument and the tegument in the area around the genital atrium. Parasitol Res 46:253–264

  2. Bondarenko SK (1993) A ramicerc in the life cycles of three species of the genus Aploparaksis (Cestoda)—parasites of waders. Parazitologiya 27:375–384 (In Russian)

  3. Bondarenko SK, Kontrimavichus VL (1977) A new cestode of Charadriiformes—Wardium chaunense sp. n. (Hymenolepididae) from Gallinago gallinago (L.) from Chukotka. Folia Parasitol 24:281–284

  4. Bondarenko SK, Kontrimavichus VL (2006) Aploparaksidae of wild and domesticated birds. In: Movsesyan SO (ed) Fundamentals of Cestodology, vol 14. Nauka, Moscow, pp 1–443, In Russian

  5. Bondarenko SK, Tomilovskaya NS (1979) New dilepidid genus, Rauschitaenia n. g., and the life-cycle of R. ancora (Mamaev, 1959) n. comb., a parasite of snipes. In: Sonin MD (ed) Ekologiya i morfologiya gel’mintov pozvonochnykh Chukotki. Nauka, Moscow, pp 29–37, In Russian

  6. Bruňanská M, Fagerholm H-P, Gustafsson MKS (2000) Ultrastructure studies of Proteocephalus longicollis (Cestoda, Proteocephalidea): transmission electron microscopy of scolex glands. Parasitol Res 86:717–723

  7. Chervy L (2009) Unified terminology for cestodes microtriches: a proposal from the participants of the International Workshops on Cestode Systematics in 2002–2008. Folia Parasitol 56:199–230

  8. Conn DB (1993) The biology of flatworms (Platyhelminthes): parenchyma cells and extracellular matrices. Trans Amer Microsc Soc 112:241–261

  9. Davydov VG, Mikryakov VR (1988) Adaptive structures of the body of some cestodes connected with defense of parasites from the host influence. Trudy GELAN USSR 36:88–100 (In Russian)

  10. Davydov VG, Pospekhova NA, Yurlova NI (1990) Ultrastructural organisation of the scolex and strobila tegument in Gastrotaenia dogieli (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae). Parazitologiya 24:207–215 (In Russian)

  11. Farooqi HU (1958) The occurrence of certain specialised glands in the rostellum of Taenia solium L. Parasitol Res 18:308–311

  12. Farooqi HU (1986) The occurrence of frontal glands in Tentacularia coryphaenae Bosc 1802 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Parasitol Res 72:653–659

  13. Holy JM, Oaks JA (1987) Mechanical integration of muscle, tegument, and subtegumental tissues by anchoring fibrils and microfibrils in the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta. Tissue Cell 19:881–891

  14. Korneva ZV (2001) Cellular composition of parenchyma and extracellular matrix in ontogenesis of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda). Biol Bull 28:7–17

  15. Korneva ZV, Davydov VG (1998) The unique modification of smooth muscle in Sobolevicanthus sp. Cell Tissue Biol 40:10–13 (In Russian)

  16. Kuperman BI, Davydov VG (1982) The fine structure of frontal glands in adult cestodes. Int J Parasitol 12:285–293

  17. McCullough JS, Fairweather I (1989) The fine structure and possible function of scolex gland cells in Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris (Cestoda, Tetraphyllidea). Parasitol Res 75:578–582

  18. Morgenstern E (1969) Vergleichende lichtoptische Untersuchungen in Rahmen electronenmikroscopischer Arbeiten an ultradunnen Schnitten. II. Farbemethoden. Mikroskopie 25:250–260 (In German)

  19. Pedersen KJ (1991) Invited review: structure and composition of basement membranes and other basal matrix systems in selected invertebrates. Acta Zool 72:181–201

  20. Pospekhov VV, Krasnoshchekov GP (1992) A new type of sensory endings in the suckers of cestodes. Parazitologiya 26:168–170 (In Russian)

  21. Pospekhova NA (2009a) Rostellar glands in two cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Parazitologiya 43:57–69 (In Russian)

  22. Pospekhova NA (2009b) Rostellar sac gland in Cloacotaenia megalops (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae). Invert Zool 6:33–46 (In Russian)

  23. Pospekhova NA (2009c) Rostellar apparatus in cestode Gastrotaenia dogieli (Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae). Vestnik Zoologii Suppl 23:172–182 (In Russian)

  24. Pospekhova NA (2012) Specific and nonspecific cover’s secretion in Hymenolepidata (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). Transaction of Center of Parasitology V 47: Morphology, systematics and ecology of parasites. Editor-in Chief S.A. Be’er. pp. 207–214. (In Russian)

  25. Pospekhova NA, Pospekhov VV (1998) Ultrastructure of the scolex suckers in Diorchis stefanskii (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae). Parazitologiya 32:347–351 (In Russian)

  26. Šlais J (1961) Lesions of the intestinal mucosa of ducks caused by Aploparaxis furcigera (Rudolphi) und Hymenolepis parvula (Kowalewski). Helminthol 3:316–321 (In German)

  27. Smyth JD (1964) Observation on the scolex of Echinococcus granulosus with special references to the occurrence and cytochemistry of secretory cells in the rostellum. Parasitol 54:515–526

  28. Specian RD, Lumsden RD (1980) The microanatomy and fine structure of the rostellum of Hymenolepis diminuta. Parasitol Res 63:71–88

  29. Stoitsova SR, Georgiev BB, Dacheva RB, Vinarova MI (1997) Scolex glands associated with the rostella in three species of the Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). Acta Zool (Stockholm) 78:187–193

  30. Thompson RCA, Eckert J (1983) Observations on Echinococcus multilocularis in the definitive host. Parasitol Res 69:335–346

  31. Thompson RCA, Dunsmore JD, Hayton AR (1979) Echinococcus granulosus: secretory activity of the rostellum of the adult cestode in situ in the dog. Exp Parasitol 48:144–163

  32. Williams CF, Poddubnaya LG, Scholz T, Turnbull JF, Ferguson HW (2011) Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri (Caryophyllidea) in the intestinal tract of tench Tinca tinca. Dis Aquat Org 97:143–154

  33. Žďárská Z, Nebesářová J (2003) Ultrastructure of the early rostellum of Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae). Parasitol Res 89:495–500

Download references

Acknowledgments

The present study was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (no.11-04-00870), and by grants of RFBR-FEB RAS (no. 09-04-98523) and FEB RAS (no. 09-III-A-06-218). The authors would like to thank the staff of the Centre of Electron Microscopy, Institute of Marine Biology, Vladivostok, Russia and Centre of Electron Microscopy, Institute of Biology of Inland Waters, Borok, Russia, for their technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Author information

Correspondence to N. A. Pospekhova.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pospekhova, N.A., Bondarenko, S.K. Morpho-functional characteristics of the scolex of Wardium chaunense (Cestoda: Aploparaksidae) penetrated into host intestine. Parasitol Res 113, 131–137 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3635-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Apical Part
  • Muscular Wall
  • Sensory Ending
  • Rostellar Hook
  • Apocrine Secretion