In the present investigation, the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia was evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC–MS analyses revealed that the essential oil contain 51 compounds. Estragole (34.69 %) and β-pinene(23.59 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05 %), eugenol (6.50 %), linalool (3.97 %), phytol (3.27 %), sabinene (2.41 %) and limonene (2.27 %). Larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 = 38.93 and LC90 = 108.64 ppm (after 12 h); LC50 = 15.03 and LC90 = 36.69 ppm (after 24 h)), A. aegypti (LC50 = 37.60 and LC90 = 104.69 ppm (after 12 h); LC50 = 11.59 and LC90 = 42.95 ppm (after 24 h)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 52.08 and LC90 = 124.33 ppm (after 12 h); LC50 = 22.49 and LC90 = 60.90 ppm (after 24 h)). Based on the results, the essential oil of F. limonia can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of vector mosquitoes.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adams RP (2009) Identification of essential oil compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, 4th edn. Allured Publishing Corporation, Corol stream, USA
Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006a) Larvicidal effects of varies essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol Res 99:466–472. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0182-3
Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006b) Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99:478–490. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0184-1
Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006c) Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions. Parasitol Res 99:473–477. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0183-2
Babu BV, Nayak AN, Dhal K, Acharya AS, Jangid PK, Mallick G (2002) The economic loss due to treatment costs and work loss to individuals with chronic lymphatic filariasis in rural communities of Orissa, India. Acta Trop 82:31–38. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(02)00030-X
Chang CL, Cho IK, Li QX (2009) Insecticidal activity of basil oil, transanethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae. J Econ Entomol 102:203–209
Conti B, Canale A, Bertoli A, Gozzini F, Pistelli L (2010) Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 107:1455–1461. doi:10.1007/s00436-010-2018-4
Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG (2000) GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. J Agri and Food Chem 48:2576–2581. doi:10.1021/jf990835x
Evergetis E, Michaelakis A, Kioulos E, Koliopoulos G, Haroutounian SA (2009) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from six Apiaceae family taxa against the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens. Parasitol Res 105:117–124. doi:10.1007/s00436-009-1370-8
Joshi RK, Badakar VM, Kholkute SD, Khatib N (2011) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) from north west Karnataka. Nat Prod Commun 6(1):141–143
Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V (2011) Mosquito larvicidal activity of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate isolated from the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. Acta Tropica 120:115–118. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.07.001
Kim DH, Ahn YJ (2001) Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects. Pest Manag Sci 57:301–306. doi:10.1002/ps.274
Lee HS (2004) Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agri Food Chem 52:2887–2889. doi:10.1021/jf049631t
Liu ZL, He Q, Chu SS, Wang CF, Du SS, Deng ZW (2012) Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Saussurea lappa roots against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 110:2125–2130. doi:10.1007/s00436-011-2738-0
Pande C, Tewari G, Singh C, Singh S, Padalia RC (2010) Chemical composition of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa. Nat Prod Res 24(19):1807–1810. doi:10.1080/14786411003752078
Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H (2000) The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. Parasitol Today 16(6):251–253. doi:10.1016/S0169-4758(00)01643-4
Ruiz C, Cachay,M, Domínguez M, Velásquez C, Espinoza G, Ventosilla P, Rojas R (2011) Chemical composition, antioxidant and mosquito larvicidal activities of essential oils from Tagetes filifolia, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes elliptica from Perú. Planta Med 77–PE30. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1282361
Santos GKN, Dutra KA, Barros RA, da Câmara CAG, Lira DD, Gusmãoc NB, Navarro DMAF (2012) Essential oils from Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae): chemical composition, oviposition deterrence, larvicidal and antibacterial activity. Ind Crop Prod 40:254–260. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.03.020
Senthil Kumar A, Venkatesalu V, Kannathasan K, Chandrasekaran M (2010) Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia. Indian J Microbiol 50(S1):70–73. doi:10.1007/s12088-010-0052-7
Senthilkumar N, Verma P, Gurusubamanian G (2009) Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Parasitol Res 104:237–244. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-1180-4
Silva WJ, Dória GAA, Maia RT, Nunes RS, Carvalho GA, Blank AF, Alves PB, Marc RM, Cavalcanti SCH (2008) Effects of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae: alternatives to environmentally safe insecticides. Bioresour Technol 99:3251–3255. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.064
Thirugnanasampandan R, David D (2012) In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed 1–4.
Wang CF, Yang K, Zhang HM, Cao J, Fang R, Liu ZL, Du SS, Wang YY, Deng ZW, Zhou L (2011) Components and insecticidal activity against the maize weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium fruits and leaves. Molecules 16:3077–3088. doi:10.3390/molecules16043077
Wilder-Smith A, Schwartz E (2005) Dengue in travelers. N Engl J Med 353:924–932. doi:10.1056/NEJMra041927
World Health Organisation (1981) Instruction for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides. WHO-VBC 81.807, pp. 1–6
World Health Organization (1992) Vector resistance to pesticides. Fifteenth report of the WHO expert committee on vector biology and control. WHO technical report, Geneva.
World Health Organization (2011) World Malaria Report. WHO, Geneva.
World Health Organisation (2012a) Dengue and severe dengue. Factsheet No. 117, WHO, Geneva.
World Health Organization (2012b) Lymphatic filariasis. Fact sheet No. 102. WHO, Geneva.
Yang YC, Lee SG, Lee HK, Kim MK, Lee SH, Lee HS (2002) A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae. J Agri Food Chem 50:3765–3767. doi:10.1021/jf011708f
Zhao NN, Zhou L, Liu ZL, Du SS, Deng ZW (2012) Evaluation of the toxicity of the essential oils of some common Chinese spices against Liposcelis bostrychophila. Food Control 26:486–490. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.021
The authors are grateful to Dr. R. Panneerselvam, Professor and Head, Department of Botany, Annamalai University for providing laboratory facilities for the study. We are thankful to The Director, Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (ICMR-Government of India), Madurai, for mosquito egg supply.
About this article
Cite this article
Senthilkumar, A., Jayaraman, M. & Venkatesalu, V. Chemical constituents and larvicidal potential of Feronia limonia leaf essential oil against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus . Parasitol Res 112, 1337–1342 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3188-z
- Lymphatic Filariasis
- Larvicidal Activity