Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Indirect effect of a turmeric diet: enhanced bile duct proliferation in Syrian hamsters with a combination of partial obstruction by Opisthorchis viverrini infection and inflammation by N-nitrosodimethylamine administration

  • 258 Accesses

  • 9 Citations


The present study revealed the indirect effect of a turmeric (TUR) diet on the histopathological changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining in Syrian hamsters with partial obstruction by liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infection and inflammation by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) administration. The result of the analysis of histopathological changes shows that a TUR diet has an anti-inflammatory property in the case of a single condition of NDMA administration or O. viverrini infection, as has been reported previously. Unfortunately, an adverse indirect effect of TUR was observed in the combination of infection with O. viverrini and administration of NDMA, with a 30–50% increase in new bile duct formation, correlated with an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Our present result suggests that the properties of curcumin are anti-inflammation and antioxidant including enhancing biliary contraction and bile flow. Thus, a combination of factors (treated with O. viverrini, NDMA, and TUR diet) result in an increasing bile duct proliferation which may cause from biliary homeostasis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Al Bulushi I, Poole S, Deeth HC, Dykes GA (2009) Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation—a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49(4):369–377

  2. Aljiffry M, Abdulelah A, Walsh M, Peltekian K, Alwayn I, Molinari M (2009) Evidence-based approach to cholangiocarcinoma: a systematic review of the current literature. J Am Coll Surg 208(1):134–147

  3. Angelo LS, Kurzrock R (2009) Turmeric and green tea: a recipe for the treatment of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 15(4):1123–1125

  4. Boonjaraspinyo S, Boonmars T, Aromdee C, Srisawangwong T, Kaewsamut B, Pinlaor S, Yongvanit P, Puapairoj A (2009) Turmeric reduces inflammatory cells in hamster opisthorchiasis. Parasitol Res 105(5):1459–1463

  5. Boonmars T, Srisawangwong T, Srirach P, Kaewsamut B, Pinlaor S, Sithithaworn P (2007) Apoptosis-related gene expressions in hamsters re-infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and re-treated with praziquantel. Parasitol Res 102:57–62

  6. Boonmars T, Srirach P, Kaewsamut B, Srisawangwong T, Pinlaor S, Pinlaor P, Yongvanit P, Sithithaworn P (2008) Apoptosis-related gene expression in hamster opisthorchiasis post praziquantel treatment. Parasitol Res 102(3):447–455

  7. Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health (1998) Thai herbal pharmacopoeia. Prachachon, Bangkok

  8. Half E, Arber N (2009) Colon cancer: preventive agents and the present status of chemoprevention. Expert Opin Pharmacother 10(2):211–219

  9. IARC Working group (1994) Infection with liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 61:121–175

  10. Menon VP, Sudheer AR (2007) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol 595:105–125

  11. Motterlini R, Foresti R, Bassi R, Green CJ (2000) Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, induces heme oxygenase-1 and protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 28(8):1303–1312

  12. Pinlaor S, Yongvanit P, Prakobwong S, Kaewsamut B, Khoontawad J, Pinlaor P, Hiraku Y (2009) Curcumin reduces oxidative and nitrative DNA damage through balancing of oxidant-antioxidant status in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini. Mol Nutr Food Res 53(10):1316–1328

  13. Priya S, Sudhakaran PR (2008) Curcumin-induced recovery from hepatic injury involves induction of apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells. Indian J Biochem Biophys 45(5):317–325

  14. Rasyid A, Rahman AR, Jaalam K, Lelo A (2002) Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11(4):314–318

  15. Silla Santos MH (1996) Biogenic amines: their importance in foods. Int J Food Microbiol 29(2–3):213–231

  16. Singh M, Singh N (2009) Molecular mechanism of curcumin induced cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biochem 325(1–2):107–119

  17. Slott PA, Liu MH, Tavoloni N (1990) Origin, pattern, and mechanism of bile duct proliferation following biliary obstruction in the rat. Gastroenterology 99(2):466–477

  18. Sripa B, Kaewkes S, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang E, Laha T, Smout M, Pairojkul C, Bhudhisawasdi V, Tesana S, Thinkamrop B, Bethony JM, Loukas A, Brindley PJ (2007) Liver fluke induces cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS Med 4(7):e201

  19. Suzuki M, Betsuyaku T, Ito Y, Nagai K, Odajima N, Moriyama C, Nasuhara Y, Nishimura M (2009) Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296:L614–L623

  20. Thamavit W, Kongkanuntn R, Tiwawech D, Moore MA (1987) Level of Opisthorchis infestation and carcinogen dose-dependence of cholangiocarcinoma induction in Syrian golden hamsters. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 54(1):52–58

  21. Thamavit W, Pairojkul C, Tiwawech D, Itoh M, Shirai T, Ito N (1993) Promotion of cholangiocarcinogenesis in the hamster liver by bile duct ligation after dimethylnitrosamine initiation. Carcinogenesis 14(11):2415–2417

  22. Thuwajit C, Thuwajit P, Uchida K, Daorueang D, Kaewkes S, Wongkham S, Miwa M (2006) Gene expression profiling defined pathways correlated with fibroblast cell proliferation induced by Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory product. World J Gastroenterol 12(22):3585–3592

  23. Uddin S, Khan AS, Al-Kuraya KS (2009) Developing curcumin into a viable therapeutic for lymphoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 18(1):57–67

  24. Wagner H, Bladt S, Zgainski EM (1983) Plant drug analysis: a thin layer chromatography atlas. Springer, Berlin

  25. Yadav VR, Suresh S, Devi K, Yadav S (2009) Novel formulation of solid lipid microparticles of curcumin for anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity for optimization of therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. J Pharm Pharmacol 61(3):311–321

Download references


This research was partially supported by the Research Strengthening Grant from the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA). We thank the Department of Parasitology, Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, the Animal Experimental Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, and Department of Parasitology, Gifu University for their support. Thanks to Mr. Christopher Salisbury for the English editing.

Author information

Correspondence to Thidarut Boonmars.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Boonjaraspinyo, S., Boonmars, T., Aromdee, C. et al. Indirect effect of a turmeric diet: enhanced bile duct proliferation in Syrian hamsters with a combination of partial obstruction by Opisthorchis viverrini infection and inflammation by N-nitrosodimethylamine administration. Parasitol Res 108, 7–14 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2031-7

Download citation


  • Curcumin
  • Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • Syrian Hamster
  • Bile Duct Proliferation
  • Hepatic Bile Duct