A highly viscous formulation containing chlorpyrifos (RET) was evaluated under laboratory, pre-field, and field conditions, and compared against ear tags with organophosphorus insecticides. Laboratory bioassays were performed using Musca domestica L. and a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate of reversed phase silica gel modeling a lipophilic surface. Insects were exposed to the insecticide vapors of both formulations, directly and indirectly to test for lateral diffusion. Knockdown time 50% (KT50) values were determined as toxicological indicators of insecticide release. Minimum KT50 values of the direct effect of both formulations on horn flies were reached 4 weeks after being applied. The KT50 effect of migrated insecticides showed that RET formulation had a maximal effectiveness between the fourth and tenth last week. The KT50 effect of the insecticide migrating from ear tags decreased during the last 2 weeks of the experiment, and the KT50 effect of the laterally migrated insecticide was significantly higher for the RET formulation during this period. A pre-field bioassay was performed by exposing pieces of rabbit leather with both formulations and recording the KT50. At the end of the experiment, the KT50 effect of laterally migrated insecticide was significantly higher for the RET formulation. Regarding vapor emission, as a general trend the KT50 effect of ear tags was greater than for the RET formulation. To evaluate the horn fly infestation in the field bioassays, photographs of the animal were taken. The results shows that RET provided significant control for 11 weeks while the ear tags provided protection until the 12th week.
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This investigation received financial support from Chemotécnica S. A. and the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (Argentina) through a FONTAR ANR 118/03 grant.
The authors are very grateful to Alberto and Sebastián Demyda for granting us the use of their pastures and cows for the field trial at the Serendip dairy farm.
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Juan, L.W., Zerba, E.N., Mariategui, P. et al. New spot-on formulation containing chlorpyrifos for controlling horn flies on cattle: laboratory model of insecticide release and field trial. Parasitol Res 107, 967–974 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1962-3
- Organophosphorus Insecticide