Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Scanning electron microscopic studies on egg surface morphology and morphometrics of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Abstract

Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis and Bancroftian filariasis, respectively in India and South East Asian countries. In this paper, we are describing the surface morphology and morphometrics of the egg of C. tritaeniorhynchus in comparison with C. quinquefasciatus for the first time. The results indicated that eggs of both the species appears to be similar to great extent in surface morphology, however, morphometrics provide 56.81% demarking attributes out of 44 attributes at various significant levels (p < 0.05–0.001), i.e., egg length, width and ratio of length/width, attributes of micropylar apparatus including corolla, disc, mound, tubercles size, and length of tubercular rows in micropylar region, size and density of tubercles, exochorionic pore in conical-shaped regions of eggs, and size of tubercular wheel units. Structurally, the additional presence of large tubercles strengthens the micropylar region to bear various collapsing forces in these species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] (2008) CDC Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (DVBID). Japanese encephalitis. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/jencephalitis/index.htm

  2. Chade DD, Haeger JS (1986) A description of the egg of Culex (Culex) nigripalpus Theobald from Florida, with notes on five egg rafts (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst 18:288–292

  3. Christophers SR (1945) Structure of the Culex egg and egg raft in relation to function (Diptera). Trans Royal Entomo Soc Lond 95:25–34

  4. Clements AN (1996) The biology of mosquitoes, Volume 1. Development, nutrition and reproduction, Chapter-3, the egg shell. Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK, pp 63–73

  5. Harbach RE, Knight KL (1978) A mosquito taxonomic glossary. XV. The egg. Mosq Syst 10:249–298

  6. Hinton HE (1968) Structure and protective devices of the egg of the mosquito Culex pipiens. J Insect Physiol 14:145–161

  7. Junkum A, Jitpakdi A, Komalamisra N, Jariyapan N, Somboon P, Bates PA, Choochote W (2004) Comparative morphometry and morphology of Anopheles aconitus form B and C eggs under scanning electron microscope. Rev Inst Med Trop de Sao Paulo 46:257–262

  8. Lounibos LP, Coetzee M, Duzak D, Nishimura N, Linley JR, Service MW, Cornel AJ, Fontenille D, Mukwaya LG (1999) A description and morphometric comparison of eggs of species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:157–185

  9. Reisen WK, Lothrop H, Chiles R, Madon M, Cossen C, Woods L, Husted S, Kramer V, Edman J (2004) West Nile virus in California. Emerg Infect Dis 8:1369–1377

  10. Sabesan S, Palaniyandi M, Das PK, Michael E (2000) Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in India. Ann Trop Med Parasit 94:591–606

  11. Service MW, Duzak D, Linley JR (1997) SEM examination of the eggs of five British Aedes species. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13:47–65

  12. Sirivanakaran S (1976) Medical entomology studies—III.A revision of the subgenus Culex in the Oriental region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Amer Ent Inst 12:1–272

Download references

Acknowledgment

The authors express their gratitude to Dr. R. Vijayaraghawan, Director, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, for encouragement and interest in the work.

Author information

Correspondence to B. D. Parashar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Suman, D.S., Shrivastava, A.R., Parashar, B.D. et al. Scanning electron microscopic studies on egg surface morphology and morphometrics of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 104, 173–176 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1162-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • West Nile Virus
  • Posterior Region
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Primary Vector
  • South East Asian Country