Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Efficacy of neem extract against the blowfly and housefly

Abstract

The blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, are ubiquitous insects that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. Pest management techniques for populations of these flies are needed. Currently, bioinsecticides, particularly those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling populations of medically important insects. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the efficacy and biological activity of a commercially available neem extract, containing 0.24% azadirachtin A, against C. megacephala and M. domesitca. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing neem solutions with fresh beef, once or multiple times, as food for rearing third instar. The laboratory tests showed that neem products significantly reduced larval and pupal survival, adult emergence, pupal weight, adult wing length, and fecundity on the subsequent generation, in a dose-dependent manner in both species. Efficacy was observed in the first generation and could extend to the second generation. Despite these reductions, reduction in total adult longevity was not evident for larvae fed once on neem solutions with fresh beef, and slightly earlier (≈1 week) mortality was observed in both species when they were fed as larvae on multiple doses. Adverse effects of this neem-based product toward M. domestica were slightly greater than those in C. megacephala. These data reinforced the efficacy of neem extract in reduced adult emergence and anti-fecundity in the subsequent generation. However, neem extract induced only low to moderate larval and pupal mortalities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aggarwal N, Brar DS (2006) Effects of different neem preparations in comparison to synthetic insecticides on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on cotton under laboratory conditions. J Pest Sci 79:201–207

  2. Annadurai RS, Rembold H (1993) Azadirachtin A modulates the tissue-specific 2D polypeptide patterns of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Naturwissenschaften 80:127–130

  3. Armbruster P, Hutchinson RA (2002) Pupal mass and wing length as indicators of fecundity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes geniculatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 39:699–704

  4. Bhatt AP, Jayakrishnan A (2000) Oral myiasis: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent 10:67–70

  5. Bruce YA, Gounou S, Chabi-Olaye A, Smith H, Schulthess F (2004) The effect of neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss) oil on oviposition, development and reproductive potentials of Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Agric For Entomol 6:223–232

  6. Dhar R, Dawar H, Garg S, Basir SF, Talwar GP (1996) Effect of volatiles from neem and other natural products on gonotrophic cycle and oviposition of Anopheles stephensi and An. culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 33:195–201

  7. Dhiman RC, Sharma VP (1994) Evaluation of neem oil as sandfly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) repellent in an oriental sore endemic area in Rajasthan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25:608–610

  8. Di Ilio V, Cristofaro M, Marchini D, Nobili P, Dallai R (1999) Effects of a neem compound on the fecundity and longevity of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol 92:76–82

  9. Focke M, Hemmer W, Wohrl S, Gotz M, Jarisch R, Kofler H (2003) Specific sensitization to the common housefly (Musca domestica) not related to insect panallergy. Allergy 58:448–451

  10. Fotedar R, Banerjee U, Singh S, Verma AK (1992) The housefly (Musca domestica) as a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms in a hospital environment. J Hosp Infect 20:209–215

  11. Greenberg B (1971) Flies and disease. Vol. I. Ecology, classification and biotic associations. Princeton University Press, New Jersey

  12. James RR (2003) Combining azadirachtin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to control Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ Entomol 96:25–30

  13. Jiang CP (2002) A collective analysis on 54 cases of human myiasis in China from 1995–2001. Chin Med J 115:1445–1447

  14. Khan M, Hossain MA, Islam MS (2007) Effects of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development of the melon fly, Bactocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pak J Biol Sci 10:3656–3661

  15. Kitthawee S, Edman JD, Upatham ES (1992) Anopheles dirus size and fecundity: relationship to larval density and protein accumulation. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23:128–131

  16. Kumarasinghe SP, Karunaweera ND, Ihalamulla RL (2000) A study of cutaneous myiasis in Sri Lanka. Int J Dermatol 39:689–694

  17. Lucantoni L, Giusti F, Cristofaro M, Pasqualini L, Esposito F, Lupetti P, Habluetzel A (2006) Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Tissue Cell 38:361–371

  18. Ma DL, Gordh G, Zalucki M (2000) Survival and development of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaves. Aust J Entomol 39:208–211

  19. Maldonado MA, Centeno N (2003) Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98:213–216

  20. Miller JA, Chamberlain WF (1989) Azadirachtin as a larvicide against the horn fly, stable fly, and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 82:1375–1378

  21. Mitchell PL, Gupta R, Singh AK, Kumar P (2004) Behavioral and developmental effects of neem extracts on Clavigralla scutellaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) and its egg parasitoid, Gryon fulviventre (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). J Econ Entomol 97:916–923

  22. Monzon RB, Sanchez AR, Tadiaman BM, Najos OA, Valencia EG, de Rueda RR, Ventura JV (1991) A comparison of the role of Musca domestica (Linnaeus) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) as mechanical vectors of helminthic parasites in a typical slum area of Metropolitan Manila. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22:222–228

  23. Mulla MS, Su T (1999) Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:133–152

  24. Musabyimana T, Saxena RC, Kairu EW, Ogol CPKO, Khan ZR (2001) Effects on neem seed derivatives on behavioral and physiological responses of the Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 94:449–454

  25. Naqvi SNH, Tabassum R, Khan MF, Yasmin N, Nurulain SM, Burney AA (2007) Toxic, residual, and teratomorphic effect of a neem extract (N-9) in comparison to Coopex 25 WP (Permethrin + Bioallethrin) against Musca domestica L. (Holland strain). Turk J Zoolog 31:127–130

  26. Sehgal R, Bhatti HP, Bhasin DK, Sood AK, Nada R, Malla N, Singh K (2002) Intestinal myiasis due to Musca domestica: a report of two cases. Jpn J Infect Dis 55:191–193

  27. Sharma VP, Ansari MA, Razdan RK (1993) Mosquito repellent action of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9:359–360

  28. Sharma VP, Dhiman RC (1993) Neem oil as a sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) repellent. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9:364–366

  29. Singh G, Rup PJ, Koul O (2007) Acute, sublethal and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins on Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Bull Entomol Res 97:351–357

  30. Singh S (2003) Effects of aqueous extract of neem seed kernel and azadiractin on the fecundity, fertility and post-embryonic development of the melonfly, Bactocera cucurbitae and the oriental fruit fly, Bactocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Appl Entomol 127:540–547

  31. Singha A, Thareja V, Singh AK (2007) Application of neem seed kernel extracts result in mouthpart deformities and subsequent mortality in Nezara viridula (L.) (Hem: Pentatomidae). J Appl Entomol 131:197–201

  32. Steffens RJ, Schmutterer H (1982) The effect of a crude methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extract on metamorphosis and quality of adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Z Angew Entomol 94:98–103

  33. Su T, Mulla MS (1998a) Antifeedancy of neem products containing azadirachtin against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Ecol 23:114–122

  34. Su T, Mulla MS (1998b) Ovicidal activity of neem products (Azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14:204–209

  35. Sucharit S, Tumrasvin W (1981) The survey of flies of medical and veterinary importance in Thailand. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 32:281–285

  36. Sucharit S, Tumrasvin W, Vutikes S (1976) A survey on house flies in Bangkok and neighboring provinces. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 7:85–90

  37. Sukontason K, Sukontason KL, Ngern-klun R, Sripakdee D, Piangjai S (2004) Differentiation of the third instar of forensically important fly species in Thailand. Ann Entomol Soc Am 97:1069–1075

  38. Sukontason KL, Bunchoo M, Khantawa B, Piangjai S, Rongsriyam Y, Sukontason K (2007) Comparison between Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala as carriers of bacteria in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:38–44

  39. Sukontason KL, Narongchai P, Sripakdee D, Boonchu N, Chaiwong T, Ngern-Klun R, Piangjai S, Sukontason K (2005) First report of human myiasis caused by Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Thailand, and its implication in forensic entomology. J Med Entomol 42:702–704

  40. Sulaiman S, Othman MZ, Aziz AH (2000) Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur. J Vector Ecol 25:90–93

  41. Tumrasvin W, Sucharit S, Kano R (1978) Studies on medically important flies in Thailand. IV. Altitudinal distribution of flies belonging to Muscidae and Calliphoridae in Doi Indhanondh Mountain, Chiengmai, in early summer season. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 25:77–81

  42. Vollinger M, Schmutterer H (2002) Development of resistance to azadirachtin and other neem ingredients. In: Schmutterer H (ed) The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other meliaceous plants. Sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes. Neem Foundation, Mumbai, pp 598–606

  43. Weathersbee III AA, Tang YQ (2002) Effect of neem extract on feeding, growth, survival, and reproduction of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 95:661–667

  44. Zhu L, Lin R (1999) A case of myiasis of the knee joint caused by Musca domestica vicina. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 17:349

  45. Zumpt F (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the Old World. Butterworths, London

Download references

Acknowledgments

Funding of this research was provided by the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant no. PHD/0059/2546 to SS) and the Thailand Research Fund through KS (Grant no. RMU5080036). We thank the Faculty of Medicine and Chiang Mai University for subsidizing publication costs.

Author information

Correspondence to Kom Sukontason.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Siriwattanarungsee, S., Sukontason, K.L., Olson, J.K. et al. Efficacy of neem extract against the blowfly and housefly. Parasitol Res 103, 535 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1004-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Adult Emergence
  • Wing Length
  • Larval Mortality
  • Azadirachtin
  • Pupal Weight