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Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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Abstract

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. aspera led to the separation and identification of a saponin as a potential mosquito larvicidal compound, with LC50 value of 18.20 and 27.24 ppm against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the saponin from the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. This study investigates the potential of crude extracts from commonly used medical herbs in India as an environmentally safe measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to C. Abdul Hakeem College Management, Prof U. Peer, Principal, Dr Ahmed Najib, HOD of Zoology Department and Dr Sait Sahul Hameed, Reader in Zoology for their help and suggestion.

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Correspondence to A. A. Rahuman.

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Bagavan, A., Rahuman, A.A., Kamaraj, C. et al. Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 103, 223–229 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0962-z

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Keywords

  • Saponin
  • Ethyl Acetate Extract
  • Larvicidal Activity
  • Antifeedant Activity
  • High Larval Mortality