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Blood coagulation in falciparum malaria—a review

Abstract

Falciparum malaria infection influences blood coagulation by various interacting pathobiological mechanisms, the most important being the overwhelming response of the host to sepsis resulting in a cytokine storm. In addition, the parasite infects the red cells leading to changes in the red cell phospholipid composition which supports blood coagulation. Red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum also adhere to deeper tissue capillary endothelium leading to profound damage to endothelial cells leading to further activation. This results in widespread consumption of platelets and activation of blood coagulation which at times culminates in a clinically and pathologically detectable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Monocyte–macrophage system also gets activated in this infection compounding the hypercoagulable state. Heavy parasitaemia leading to occlusion of hepatic microcirculation leads to abnormalities in synthesis and secretion of coagulation factors and their inhibitors. Drugs used in the treatment for falciparum malaria can cause thrombocytopaenia, bone marrow suppression and haemolytic anaemia, all of which can interfere indirectly with blood coagulation. Microparticle formation from platelets, red cells and macrophages also causes widespread activation of blood coagulation, and this recently observed mechanism is the focus of intense research in many other inflammatory and neoplastic conditions where there is activation of blood coagulation system. Thus, in severe falciparum malaria, there is activation of blood coagulation system along with thrombocytopaenia, even before widespread DIC and coagulation failure occur.

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Correspondence to Kanjaksha Ghosh.

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Ghosh, K., Shetty, S. Blood coagulation in falciparum malaria—a review. Parasitol Res 102, 571–576 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-007-0832-0

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Keywords

  • Malaria
  • Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation
  • Falciparum Malaria
  • Cerebral Malaria
  • Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation