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Epidemiology, pathophysiology, management and outcome of renal dysfunction associated with plasmodia infection

Abstract

Malaria remains a serious health problem in many parts of the world. It causes high morbidity and claims many lives in developing countries each year. Humans are generally infected by four species of malaria parasites. However, malaria infection caused by Plasmodium malariae or P. falciparum is recognized as an important cause of acute renal failure (ARF) and other renal-related disorders (nephropathy) in infected patients. The increasing incidence of malarial ARF (MARF) and the emergence of clinical malarial infection after renal transplantation represent a serious challenge. Additionally, the impact of immunosuppressive therapies on malarial infection is intricate, complex, and not yet well defined. Pathogenesis of MARF is most likely to be due to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis caused by immune-complex deposition and endothelial damage, which may lead to fatal forms of quartan malarial nephropathies. Effects of mechanical, immunologic, cytokine, humoral, acute phase response, and hemodynamics factors in inducing malarial nephropathy have also been postulated. Development of preventive strategies aimed at combating MARF and other renal disorders associated with malaria infection requires (1) prevention of malarial infection, (2) early diagnosis, and (3) early referral to well-equipped centers to provide renal replacement therapy, if necessary, along with antimalarial therapy and support. These measures could significantly reduce mortality and enhance recovery of renal function.

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Correspondence to Hany M. Elsheikha.

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Elsheikha, H.M., Sheashaa, H.A. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, management and outcome of renal dysfunction associated with plasmodia infection. Parasitol Res 101, 1183 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-007-0650-4

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Keywords

  • Malaria
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Falciparum Malaria