The infectivity of six Blastocystis isolates obtained from two domestic chickens, two Japanese quails and two domestic geese, were examined in 1-week-old male chicks. All six isolates were able to infect the chicks via the intracecal inoculation of 1×106 cells of cultured organisms. Since the infected chicks discharged many cysts in their feces, the infectivity of the concentrated cysts in chicks was compared among three isolates from different bird species. The CK86-1 and QQ93-3 isolates, which were obtained from a chicken and a quail, respectively, were successfully infected in chicks by orally inoculating with 1×102–1×106 cysts. On the other hand, the AC03-1 isolate from a goose required more cysts to infect the chicks, from 1×103 cysts to 1×106 cysts. In addition, when an uninfected normal chick was housed with five experimentally inoculated chicks with cysts of the QQ93-3 isolate, the normal chick became infected, indicating the fecal–oral transmission of the cyst form among the birds. These results show that the transmission of Blastocystis infection occurs easily between the same or different bird species. Therefore, the proposal of new Blastocystis species on the basis of different avian host species is problematic.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abe N, Nagoshi M, Takami K, Sawano Y, Yoshikawa H (2002) A survey of Blastocystis sp. in livestock, pets, and zoo animals in Japan. Vet Parasitol 106:203–212
Abe N, Wu Z, Yoshikawa H (2003a) Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from birds by PCR with diagnostic primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Parasitol Res 89:393–396
Abe N, Wu Z, Yoshikawa H (2003b) Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from primates. Vet Parasitol 113:321–325
Abe N, Wu Z, Yoshikawa H (2003c) Zoonotic genotypes of Blastocystis hominis detected in cattle and pigs by PCR with diagnostic primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Parasitol Res 90:124–128
Arisue N, Hashimoto T, Yoshikawa H (2003) Sequence heterogeneity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes among Blastocystis isolates. Parasitology 126:1–9
Belova LM (1991) Blastocystis anatis sp. nov. (Rizopoda, Lobosea) from Anas platyrhynchos. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 70: 5–10 (in Russian)
Belova LM (1992) A new species of Blastocystis anseri (Protista: Rhizopoda) from domestic geese. Parazitologiia 26: 80–82 (in Russian)
Belova LM, Kostenko LA (1990) Blastocystis galli sp. n. (Protista: Rizopoda) from the intestine of domestic hens. Parazitologiia 24: 164–168 (in Russian)
Chen XQ, Singh M, Ho LC, Tan SW, Ng GC, Moe KT, Yap EH (1997) Description of a Blastocystis species from Ratttus norvegicus. Parasitol Res 83:313–318
Chen XQ, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Yap EH (1999) In vitro encystation and excystation of Blastocystis ratti. Parasitology 118:151–160
Krylov MV, Belova LM (1997) Blastocystis from primates. Parazitologiia 31:341–345 (in Russian)
Lee MG, Stenzel DJ (1999) A survey of Blastocystis in domestic chickens. Parasitol Res 85:109–117
Moe KT, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Ng GC, Chen XQ, Yap EH (1996) Observations on the ultrastructure and viability of the cystic stage of Blastocystis hominis from human feces. Parasitol Res 82:439–444
Noël C, Peyronnet C, Gerbod D, Edgcomb VP, Delgado-Viscogliosi P, Sogin ML, Capron M, Viscogliosi E, Zenner L (2003) Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts based on the comparison of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. Mol Biochem Parasitol 126:119–123
Singh M, Ho LC, Yap ALL, Ng GC, Tan SW, Moe KT, Yap EH (1996) Axenic culture of reptilian Blastocystis isolates in monophasic medium and speciation by karyotypic typing. Parasitol Res 82:165–169
Teow WL, Zaman V, Ng GC, Chan YC, Yap EH, Howe J, Gopalakrishnakone P, Singh M (1991) A Blastocystis species from the sea-snake, Lapemis hardwickii (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). Int J Parasitol 21:723–726
Yamada M, Yoshikawa H, Matsumoto Y, Yoshikawa T, Shiota T, Yoshida Y (1987) Light microscopical study of Blastocystis spp. in monkeys and fowls. Prasitol Res 73:527–531
Yoshikawa H, Kuwayama N, Enose Y (1995) Histochemical detection of carbohydrates of Blastocystis hominis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 42:70–74
Yoshikawa H, Nagano I, Yap EH, Singh M, Takahashi Y (1996) DNA polymorphism revealed by arbitrary primers polymerase chain reaction among Blastocystis strains isolated from humans, a chicken, and a reptile. J Eukaryot Microbiol 43:127–130
Yoshikawa H, Nagano I, Wu Z, Yap EH, Singh M, Takahashi Y (1998) Genomic polymorphism among Blastocystis strains and development of subtype-specific diagnostic primers. Mol Cell Probes 12:153–159
Yoshikawa H, Abe N, Iwasawa M, Kitano S, Nagano I, Wu Z, Takahashi Y (2000) Genomic analysis of Blastocystis hominis strains isolated from two long-term health care facilities. J Clin Microbiol 38:1324–1330
Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Nagano I, Takahashi Y (2003a) Molecular comparative studies among Blastocystis isolates obtained from humans and animals. J Parasitol 89:585–594
Yoshikawa H, Nagashima M, Morimoto K, Yamanouti Y, Yap EH, Singh M (2003b) Freeze-fracture and cytochemical studies on the in vitro cyst form of reptilian Blastocystis pythoni. J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:70–75
Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Kimata I, Iseki M, Karim MD, Ali I, Hossain MB, Zaman V, Haque R, Takahashi Y (2004a) Polymerase chain reaction-based genotype clasification among human Blastocystis hominis populations isolated from different countries. Parasitol Res 92:22–29
Yoshikawa H, Abe N, Wu Z (2004b) PCR-based identification of zoonotic isolates of Blastocystis from mammals and birds. Microbiology 150:1147–1151
Yoshikawa H, Morimoto K, Wu Z, Singh M, Hashimoto T (2004c) Problems in speciation in the genus Blastocystis. Trends Parasitol 20:251–255
Yoshikawa H, Yoshida K, Nakajima A, Yamanari K, Iwatani S, Kimata I (2004d) Fecal–oral transmission of the cyst form of Blastocystis hominis in rats. Parasitol Res 94:391–396
We thank Dr M. Singh, of the National University of Singapore, for providing the Blastocystis G3 isolate from a goose. This work was supported by a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to H.Y. (C-16590338). All the experiments described comply with the current laws of the country in which the experiments were performed.
About this article
Cite this article
Tanizaki, A., Yoshikawa, H., Iwatani, S. et al. Infectivity of Blastocystis isolates from chickens, quails and geese in chickens. Parasitol Res 96, 57–61 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1326-6
- Bird Species
- Japanese Quail
- Cecum Content
- Fecal Culture
- Fresh Fecal Sample