Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Improved quantification of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic forms in rodents

  • 45 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

The result of a Plasmodium sporozoite challenge is currently evaluated either by detecting the emergence or not of parasites in the blood, or by estimating the ‘prepatent period’, which is the time between sporozoite inoculation and the appearance of parasites in the blood. This type of measurement is relatively rough and has given way to another method of measuring sporozoite infectivity, which is to enumerate the exoerythrocytic forms (EEF) by microscopic examination of liver sections. Up until now, two different methods have been proposed to calculate and estimate the number of Plasmodium EEF forms in the livers of infected rodents, both of which are unfortunately biased to some extent. Here, we propose a different method of calculation, which more faithfully reflects the EEF number in the liver. This method is based on the calculated mean number of consecutive liver sections in which a schizont appears, and is host related.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bruna-Romero O, Hafalla JC, Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza G, Sano G, Tsuji M, Zavala F (2001) Detection of malaria liver-stages in mice infected through the bite of a single Anopheles mosquito using a highly sensitive real-time PCR. Int J Parasitol 31:1499–1502

  2. Chatterjee S, Francois G, Druilhe P, Timperman G, Wéry M (1996) Immunity to Plasmodium berghei exoerythrocytic forms derived from irradiated sporozoites. Parasitol Res 82:297–303

  3. Chatterjee S, Ngonseu E, Van Overmeir C, Correwyn A, Druilhe P, Wéry M (2001) Rodent malaria in the natural host—irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei induce liver-stage specific immune responses in the natural host Grammomys surdaster and protect immunized Grammomys against P. berghei sporozoite challenge. Afr J Med Med Sci 30:25–33

  4. Khan ZM, Vanderberg JP (1991) Role of host cellular response in differential susceptibility of nonimmunized BALB/c mice to Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites. Infect Immun 99:2529–2534

  5. Ngonseu E, Chatterjee S, Wéry M (1998) Blocked hepatic-stage parasites and decrease susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei infections in the BALB/c mice. Parasitology 117:419–423

  6. Scheller LF, Wirtz RA, Azad AF (1994) Susceptibility of different strains of mice to hepatic infection with Plasmodium berghei. Infect Immun 62:4844–4847

  7. Vanderberg JP (1977) Plasmodium berghei: quantitation of sporozoites injected by mosquitoes feeding on a rodent host. ExpParasitol42:169–181

  8. Vanderberg JP, Nussenzweig RS, Most H (1968) Further studies on the Plasmodium berghei-Anopheles stephensi-rodent system of mammalian malaria. J Parasitol 54:1009–1016

  9. Vincke IH, Bafort J, Scheepers-Biva M (1966) Observations récentes sur la transmission cyclique du Plasmodium berghei. Ann Soc Belge Med Trop 46:327–336

  10. Wéry M (1966) Etude du cycle de Plasmodium berghei yoelii en vue de la production massive de sporozoïtes viables et de formes exo-érythrocytaires. Ann Soc Belge Med Trop 46:755–788

  11. Yoeli M, Most H (1965) Studies on sporozoite-induced infections of rodent malaria. I. The pre-erythrocytic tissue stage of Plasmodium berghei. Am J Trop Med Hyg 14:700–714

  12. Zechini B, Cordier L, Ngonseu E, D’Alessandro U, Wéry M, Chatterjee S (1999) Plasmodium berghei development in irradiated sporozoite-immunized C57BL6 mice. Parasitology 118:335–338

Download references

Acknowledgement

This study complies with the current ethics laws on animal experimentation in Belgium.

Author information

Correspondence to S. Chatterjee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chatterjee, S., Ngonseu, E., Druilhe, P. et al. Improved quantification of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic forms in rodents. Parasitol Res 92, 459–463 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-004-1074-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Liver Volume
  • Subunit Vaccine
  • Liver Section
  • C57BL6 Mouse
  • Liver Stage