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Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 145, Issue 12, pp 2901–2910 | Cite as

Oncogenic potential of nucleoporins in non-hematological cancers: recent update beyond chromosome translocation and gene fusion

  • Adhiraj RoyEmail author
  • Gopeshwar Narayan
Review – Cancer Research

Abstract

Introduction

The nuclear pore complex is comprised of approximately 30 proteins named nucleoporins (Nups) and tightly regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules across the nuclear membrane. Genetic alterations in many NUP genes are associated with many human maladies, such as neurological disease, autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Methods

We reviewed the status quo of recent advancement of the knowledge of oncogenic role of nucleoporins in human carcinogenesis, focusing on major non-hematological malignancies in the recent literature. Both clinical study-derived and experiment-based reports were critically reviewed. We have also discussed the potential of nucleoporins as novel cancer biomarkers and promising therapeutic target against human malignancies.

Results

Several Nups such as Nup53, Nup88, Nup98, Nup160 and Nup214 modulated a plethora of cellular and physiological pathways involved in tumorigenesis such as GSK3β-Snail, Wnt/β-Catenin and RanGap1/RanBP2 signaling axes, DNA damage response, resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy.

Conclusion

Although classically, majority of studies have shown oncogenic roles of nucleoporins as genetic fusion partners in several types of leukemia, emerging evidence suggests that nucleoporins also modulate many cellular signaling pathways that are associated with several major non-hematological malignancies, such as carcinomas of skin, breast, lung, prostate and colon. Hence, nucleoporins are emerging as novel therapeutic targets in human tumors.

Keywords

Nuclear pore complex Nucleoporins Signaling pathway Biomarker Cancer 

Abbreviations

NE

Nuclear membrane

NPC

Nuclear pore complex

NUP

Nucleoporin

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

CML

Chronic myeloid leukemia

ABL

Acute biphenotypic leukemia

TNBC

Triple negative breast cancer

PC

Prostate cancer

CRPC

Castration-resistant prostate cancer

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

PDA

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ramalingaswami Re-entry fellowship Grant (BT/HRD/35/02/2006), Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India to AR.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary School of Life Sciences, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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