Oncogenic potential of nucleoporins in non-hematological cancers: recent update beyond chromosome translocation and gene fusion
The nuclear pore complex is comprised of approximately 30 proteins named nucleoporins (Nups) and tightly regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules across the nuclear membrane. Genetic alterations in many NUP genes are associated with many human maladies, such as neurological disease, autoimmune disorders and cancer.
We reviewed the status quo of recent advancement of the knowledge of oncogenic role of nucleoporins in human carcinogenesis, focusing on major non-hematological malignancies in the recent literature. Both clinical study-derived and experiment-based reports were critically reviewed. We have also discussed the potential of nucleoporins as novel cancer biomarkers and promising therapeutic target against human malignancies.
Several Nups such as Nup53, Nup88, Nup98, Nup160 and Nup214 modulated a plethora of cellular and physiological pathways involved in tumorigenesis such as GSK3β-Snail, Wnt/β-Catenin and RanGap1/RanBP2 signaling axes, DNA damage response, resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy.
Although classically, majority of studies have shown oncogenic roles of nucleoporins as genetic fusion partners in several types of leukemia, emerging evidence suggests that nucleoporins also modulate many cellular signaling pathways that are associated with several major non-hematological malignancies, such as carcinomas of skin, breast, lung, prostate and colon. Hence, nucleoporins are emerging as novel therapeutic targets in human tumors.
KeywordsNuclear pore complex Nucleoporins Signaling pathway Biomarker Cancer
Nuclear pore complex
Atomic force microscopy
Acute myeloid leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Acute biphenotypic leukemia
Triple negative breast cancer
Castration-resistant prostate cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
This work was supported by the Ramalingaswami Re-entry fellowship Grant (BT/HRD/35/02/2006), Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India to AR.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.
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