Adjuvant carboplatin therapy in patients with clinical stage 1 testicular seminoma: is long-term morbidity increased?

  • Christian Guido Ruf
  • Stefan Borck
  • Petra Anheuser
  • Cord Matthies
  • Tim Nestler
  • Henrik Zecha
  • Hendrik Isbarn
  • Klaus-Peter DieckmannEmail author
Original Article – Clinical Oncology



Clinical stage (CS) 1 testicular seminoma is cured in almost 100% of cases following either retroperitoneal radiotherapy, carboplatin monotherapy, or surveillance strategies. Little is known about potential long-term effects of carboplatin. We, therefore, examined late sequelae of this drug in seminoma patients.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively identified 451 patients with CS1 testicular seminoma treated between 1994 and 2014, of whom 243 underwent carboplatin therapy [median follow-up (F/U) 96 months], 81 received radiotherapy (median F/U 142 months), and 127 underwent surveillance (median F/U 40 months). Satisfaction regarding management, as well as the following events during F/U, were analysed by questionnaire: subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), cardiovascular events, arterial hypertension, peptic ulcer, tinnitus, peripheral neuropathy, hypogonadism, and infertility. The relative frequencies of the events were analysed using descriptive statistics. The frequency of observed SMNs was compared with the expected number.


Patients receiving carboplatin tolerated the treatment less well (71.2%) than those under surveillance (81.9%). After carboplatin, 12 SMNs (5.0%) were noted vis-a-vis 5.0 expected. There were three cases of prostatic cancer and 3 melanomas among the SMNs. Half of these SMNs occurred early after treatment. Among the other health events, only reported hypogonadism (13.2%) appeared to be marginally increased in frequency.


This study found a 2.4-fold higher than expected rate of SMN—and a slightly increased rate of hypogonadism—in the long-term period following carboplatin treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings, these results are probably informative for clinicians caring for seminoma patients.


Seminoma Carboplatin Radiotherapy Surveillance Late toxicity Second cancer 



Confidence interval


Clinical stage


Germ-cell tumour




Robert Koch Institut (Berlin)


Subsequent malignant neoplasm



Dr. Raphael Ikogho assisted in the collection and interpretation of patient clinical data. Prof. Andreas Stang, director of the Center of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), provided valuable advice in calculating the expected numbers of subsequent malignant neoplasms. Profs. Guido Sauter and Thomas Loening and their staffs provided the histological diagnoses of the patients. Dr. Daniela Dinger provided valuable advice in the design and management of the study.


The present study did not receive any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors declare any conflicts of interest related to the present report.

Ethical approval

The present study received approval from the ethical committee of the Ärztekammer Hamburg (PV5025/2015). All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

Supplementary material

432_2019_2965_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Questionnaire (translated English version) (DOCX 12 kb)
432_2019_2965_MOESM2_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary Table 1: Hypertension and other health-related events occur (DOC 30 kb)
432_2019_2965_MOESM3_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary Table 2: Paternity and infertility after treatment of seminoma (DOC 29 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abteilung für UrologieBundeswehrkrankenhaus HamburgHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Abteilung für UrologieBundeswehrzentralkrankenhaus KoblenzKoblenzGermany
  3. 3.Klinik für UrologieAlbertinen-Krankenhaus HamburgHamburgGermany
  4. 4.Martini Klinik am Universitätsklinikum EppendorfHamburgGermany
  5. 5.Asklepios Klinik AltonaAbteilung Urologie, HodentumorzentrumHamburgGermany

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