The anticancer effects and mechanisms of fucoxanthin combined with other drugs
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Fucoxanthin (Fx) is a characteristic carotenoid present in brown seaweed that has been shown to have various benefits, including anticancer effects. In vitro studies demonstrated these various effects, including the suppression of cell viability, the promotion of apoptosis, and antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and antimetastatic activity. Interestingly, combinations of Fx with other drugs have better effects than either Fx or other drugs alone. Although the antiproliferative and cancer prevention activities of the combination of Fx and other drugs are still unclear, several effects have been discovered, including the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G1/G0, enhanced gap junctional intercellular communication, and the induction of autophagy via various mechanisms, such as decreasing P-gp, activating the CYP3A4 promoter, increasing reactive oxygen species and cellular uptake and suppressing the PI3K/Akt/NFκB pathway. In this review, we address the anticancer effects and mechanisms of the combination of Fx and other drugs in different types of cancer.
The relevant literature from PubMed and Web of Science databases is reviewed in this article.
Fx combined with other drugs could enhance the effect of both Fx and the other drug or reduce the dose without reducing the effect, which may create more effective and less harmful therapeutic strategies.
Fx combined with other drugs has significant anticancer effects by various mechanisms and could be a potential therapeutic strategy for different types of cancer.
KeywordsFucoxanthin Troglitazone 5-Fluorouracil Pregnane X receptor Imatinib
Protein kinase B
Mammalian target of rapamycin
B-cell lymphoma 2
c-Jun N-terminal kinases
Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein family
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Pregnane X receptor
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ
- ABC transporters
ATP-binding cassette transporters
Multidrug resistance protein
Reactive oxygen species
Bcl-2-associated X protein
Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Steroid receptor coactivator-1
Excision repair cross complementation 1
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Adult T-cell leukemia
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein
Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2
Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitorα
B-cell lymphoma-extra large
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Breakpoint cluster region protein
Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog
Phosphatase and tensin homolog
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
Tumor necrosis factor
We thank Rong Xu, Jiaxiong Ming, Huan Zhang, Yuyue Zuo, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, for advice on the article.
This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of Wuhan (Grant no. WX18Q21 to YC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that he/she have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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