Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 145, Issue 2, pp 321–328 | Cite as

Glioma stem cells reconstruct similar immunoinflammatory microenvironment in different transplant sites and induce malignant transformation of tumor microenvironment cells

  • Tao Xie
  • Bing Liu
  • Chun-Gang Dai
  • Zhao-Hui LuEmail author
  • Jun DongEmail author
  • Qiang Huang
Original Article – Cancer Research



This study aimed to examine whether the different tumor-transplanted sites could construct a similar immunoinflammatory microenvironment and to investigate the interactions between tumor microenvironment cells.


The red fluorescent protein-SU3 (SU3-RFP) or SU3 glioma stem cells (GSC) were inoculated into the brain, liver, abdominal cavity, and subcutis of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nude mice. The tumor tissues were taken to observe the tissue cell distribution. The single cell suspension of tumor tissues was prepared and cultured, while the SU3-RFP cells were co-cultured with the cells from GFP-transgenic mice. The RFP+, GFP+, and RFP+/GFP+ cells were traced by fluorescence microscope, and their protein expressions were determined by Western blot analysis. The markers of immunoinflammatory cells, including F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, CD80, CD47, and SIRP-α, were determined by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry assays, respectively.


The xenograft models of all transplant sites were inducible, and the red tumor cells of tumor tissues were encircled by a great quantity of host-derived green cells, including immunoinflammatory cells with CD80, F4/80, CD11b, and CD11c expressions, which might generate the cell colonies and possess the pseudopodia. Additionally, the interactions between red tumor cells and green immunoinflammatory cells, including cell fusion process and yellow fusion cell formation, were observed in cultured cells. The fusion cells-derived B4 cells with expressions of CD47 and SIRP-α proteins had the strong proliferation ability and tumorigenic effect.


The similar tumor immunoinflammatory microenvironment was constructed by GSC in different transplant sites, and the cell fusion indicated a malignant transformation of the tumor microenvironment cells.


Glioma stem cells Transplantation tumor model Tumor immunoinflammatory microenvironment Malignant transformation of microenvironment cells 



Glioma stem cells


Green fluorescent protein


Red fluorescent protein


Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Stem/progenitor cell surface antigen-1



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81472739), Science & Technology Project for Medical Health of Suzhou New District (no. 2017Q011), and Suzhou Science & Technology Development Project (no. SYS201507).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Experimental Center, Department of NeurosurgeryThe Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow UniversitySuzhouChina

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