Glioma stem cells reconstruct similar immunoinflammatory microenvironment in different transplant sites and induce malignant transformation of tumor microenvironment cells
This study aimed to examine whether the different tumor-transplanted sites could construct a similar immunoinflammatory microenvironment and to investigate the interactions between tumor microenvironment cells.
The red fluorescent protein-SU3 (SU3-RFP) or SU3 glioma stem cells (GSC) were inoculated into the brain, liver, abdominal cavity, and subcutis of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nude mice. The tumor tissues were taken to observe the tissue cell distribution. The single cell suspension of tumor tissues was prepared and cultured, while the SU3-RFP cells were co-cultured with the cells from GFP-transgenic mice. The RFP+, GFP+, and RFP+/GFP+ cells were traced by fluorescence microscope, and their protein expressions were determined by Western blot analysis. The markers of immunoinflammatory cells, including F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, CD80, CD47, and SIRP-α, were determined by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry assays, respectively.
The xenograft models of all transplant sites were inducible, and the red tumor cells of tumor tissues were encircled by a great quantity of host-derived green cells, including immunoinflammatory cells with CD80, F4/80, CD11b, and CD11c expressions, which might generate the cell colonies and possess the pseudopodia. Additionally, the interactions between red tumor cells and green immunoinflammatory cells, including cell fusion process and yellow fusion cell formation, were observed in cultured cells. The fusion cells-derived B4 cells with expressions of CD47 and SIRP-α proteins had the strong proliferation ability and tumorigenic effect.
The similar tumor immunoinflammatory microenvironment was constructed by GSC in different transplant sites, and the cell fusion indicated a malignant transformation of the tumor microenvironment cells.
KeywordsGlioma stem cells Transplantation tumor model Tumor immunoinflammatory microenvironment Malignant transformation of microenvironment cells
Glioma stem cells
Green fluorescent protein
Red fluorescent protein
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Stem/progenitor cell surface antigen-1
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81472739), Science & Technology Project for Medical Health of Suzhou New District (no. 2017Q011), and Suzhou Science & Technology Development Project (no. SYS201507).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Dong J, Dai XL, Lu ZH et al (2012) Incubation and application of transgenic green fluorescent nude mice in visualization studies on glioma tissue remodeling. Chin Med J 125:4349–4354Google Scholar
- Sheehy PF, Wakonigv T, Winn R, Clarkson BD (1974) Asynchronous DNA synthesis and asynchronous mitosis in multinuclear ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res 34:991–996Google Scholar
- Zhu YD, Dai XL, Zhao DL, Sun C, Dong J, Huang Q (2013) The effect of glioma stem/progenitor cell on tumor angiogenesis traced by red/green fluorescent protein. Chin J Exp Surg 30:297–299Google Scholar