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Differential somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptor expression in MALT-type lymphoma of gastric and extragastric origin

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Whereas the different somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 are known to be expressed in a wide variety of human malignancies, comprehensive data are still lacking for MALT-type lymphomas.


Overall, 55 cases of MALT-type lymphoma of both gastric and extragastric origin were evaluated for the SSTR subtype and CXCR4 expression by means of immunohistochemistry using novel monoclonal rabbit antibodies. The stainings were rated by means of the immunoreactive score and correlated with clinical data.


While the CXCR4 was detected in 92 % of the cases investigated, the SSTR subtypes were much less frequently present. The SSTR5 was expressed in about 50 % of the cases, followed by the SSTR3, the SSTR2A, the SSTR4 and the SSTR1, which were present in 35, 27, 18 or 2 %, respectively, of the tumors only. Gastric lymphomas displayed a significantly higher SSTR3, SSTR4 and SSTR5 expression than extragastric tumors. A correlation between CXCR4 and Ki-67 expression was seen in gastric lymphomas, whereas primarily in extragastric tumors SSTR5 negativity was associated with poor patient outcome.


The CXCR4 may serve as a promising target for diagnostics and therapy of MALT-type lymphomas, while the SSTRs appear not suitable in this respect.

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Somatostatin receptor


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Author’s contributions

Daniel Kaemmerer and Amelie Lupp conceived and designed the experiments; Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp, Barbara Kiesewetter and Markus Raderer provided the tumor samples; Stefan Schulz provided the antibodies; Susann Stollberg and Amelie Lupp performed the experiments; Susann Stollberg, Elisa Neubauer and Amelie Lupp analyzed the data; Amelie Lupp wrote the paper; each of the authors has approved the manuscript and acknowledges that he or she participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for its content.


The Theranostic Research Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, 99437 Bad Berka, Germany, provided funding for this research.

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Correspondence to Amelie Lupp.

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Conflict of interest

Daniel Kaemmerer received funding and support for travelling to meetings by the companies Ipsen and Pfizer. All other authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Permission was gained from the local ethics committees both in Jena/Bad Berka and in Vienna for this retrospective analysis. Informed consent for the use of tissue samples for scientific purposes was obtained from all individual participants included in the study when entering the University Hospital of Vienna.

Additional information

Susann Stollberg and Daniel Kämmerer have contributed equally to the first authorship.

Markus Raderer and Amelie Lupp have contributed equally to the last authorship.

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-016-2312-3.

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Stollberg, S., Kämmerer, D., Neubauer, E. et al. Differential somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptor expression in MALT-type lymphoma of gastric and extragastric origin. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 142, 2239–2247 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-016-2220-6

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  • MALT lymphoma
  • Somatostatin receptors
  • Chemokine receptor
  • CXCR4
  • Immunohistochemistry