Sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney disease have been assessed in a limited number of studies. Our aim was to characterize the types of sleep disorders in children on regular hemodialysis and to detect the predictors of sleep efficiency in those children. Forty children and adolescents on regular hemodialysis and another 40 age- and gender-matched control groups were interviewed to answer a questionnaire-based survey, a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale, to assess excess daytime sleepiness. Also, they underwent an overnight in-laboratory polysomnography to assess total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep staging, apnea/hypopnea index, and periodic limb movement index. We found poor sleep efficiency in 20% of cases, and periodic limb movement index higher than 5 in 45%, and apnea/hypopnea index higher than 5 in 40%. There was significant negative correlation between sleep efficiency on one hand, and serum potassium, serum creatinine, and sleep onset on other hand (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). There was significant decrease in hemoglobin, serum iron, and transferrin saturation in patients with excess daytime sleepiness (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.010, respectively). By using multivariate linear regression analysis, we found that serum creatinine was the single independent predictor of sleep efficiency.
Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is not uncommon in hemodialysis children. Our results show a lower frequency of sleep disorders in comparison with previous studies. There is a strong association between kidney dysfunction and poor sleep quality in HD children.
|What is known:|
• Sleep disturbances can adversely affect a child’s daytime performance.
• Sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney disease have been assessed in only a limited number of studies.
What is new:
• Poor sleep quality is not uncommon in hemodialysis children.
• There is a strong association between kidney dysfunction and poor sleep quality in hemodialysis children.
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congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract
chronic kidney disease
excess daytime sleepiness
end stage renal disease
Epworth Sleepiness Scale
health-related quality of life
periodic limb movement index
restless leg syndrome
sleep disordered breathing
total sleep time
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An informed consent was obtained from patients’ caregivers.
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Communicated by Mario Bianchetti
Epworth Sleepiness Scale—Children
How likely are you to doze off or fall asleep in the following situations, in contrast to feeling just tired? This refers to your usual way of life in recent times. Even if you have not done some of these things recently, think about how they would have affected you. Use the following scale to choose the most appropriate number for each situation: 0 = would never doze or sleep, 1 = slight chance of dozing or sleeping, 2 = moderate chance of dozing or sleeping, and 3 = high chance of dozing or sleeping.
Sitting and reading
Sitting inactive in a public place (for example, a movie theater or classroom)
As a passenger in a car for an hour without a break
Lying down to rest in the afternoon when circumstances permit
Sitting and talking to someone
Sitting quietly after lunch
In a car, while stopped for a few minutes in traffic
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El-baroudy, N., El Falaki, M., Hagras, A. et al. Sleep disorders in children and adolescents on regular hemodialysis. Eur J Pediatr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03611-w
- Sleep quality
- Sleep efficiency