Developmental and behavioral problems in preschool-aged primary ciliary dyskinesia patients
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) causes a broad spectrum of disease. This study aims to explore the developmental, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of preschool-aged children with PCD. Fourteen PCD, 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled. Developmental features of the participants were evaluated with Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Parents of participants filled out the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The number of children screened positive for developmental delay was statistically higher in the PCD group. Higher numbers of children with PCD were screened positive for developmental delay in communication and problem-solving domains. Delay in fine motor skill domain was more common in children with PCD and CF compared to healthy subjects. There was no difference among the three groups in terms of gross motor and personal-social development. None of the children in all three groups was shown to have social-emotional problems. In CBCL, patients with CF had higher internalizing problem scores. Externalizing and total problem scores did not differ between the three groups. However, among PCD patients, children with developmental delay on more than one domain had higher externalizing and total problem scores.
What is Known:
• Intelligence scores of school-aged PCD patients are similar to healthy subjects despite their higher internalizing problem scores on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
• School-aged PCD patients exhibit higher hyperactivity and inattention findings.
What is New:
• Positive screening for developmental delay in communication, problem-solving and fine motor skills is more common in preschool-aged PCD patients.
• Preschool-aged PCD patients screened positive for developmental delay in more than one domain have higher externalizing and total problem scores on CBCL.
KeywordsPrimary ciliary dyskinesia Developmental delay Behavioral problems Social-emotional problems
American Academy of Pediatrics
Ages and Stages Questionnaire
Ages and Stages Questionnaire:social-emotional
Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Turkish children
Child Behavior Checklist
Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Turkish version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire:social-emotional
Zengin Akkus P and Gharibzadeh Hizal M conceptualized and designed the study. They were responsible for all the assessments of patients. They drafted the initial manuscript, revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript.
Ilter Bahadur E, Esref S, and Ozdemir G were responsible for collecting data, they revised the manuscript and approved the final manuscript.
Karahan S carried out the statistical analyses, interpreted the statistical data, reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript.
Yalcin E, Dogru Ersoz D, and Kiper N interpreted the data, reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript.
Ozmert EN and Ozcelik U conceptualized and designed the study, supervised all the assessments of patients. They interpreted the statistical data, reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from parents of all participants included in the study.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Ethics Committee of the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine approved the study design. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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