Maternal blood leptin concentration in small for gestational age: a meta-analysis
Monitoring leptin concentration in maternal blood would be useful for earlier identification of mothers at risk of delivering small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. This study was performed to examine whether maternal blood leptin concentrations are different between SGA neonates and healthy controls. Meta-analysis was performed to summarize the data of all English-language studies providing the numbers of SGA neonates, the numbers of healthy controls, and the means and standard deviations of maternal blood leptin concentrations in these two groups. The studies were collected by searching ten databases including PubMed (MEDLINE) and investigating the PubMed Related Citations and bibliographic references. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Publication bias was assessed using Egger’s test. The primary outcome of this study was the standardized mean difference (SMD) in maternal blood leptin concentration between SGA neonates and healthy controls. Thirty-two overall good-quality studies involving 1734 women and their neonates were extracted from 17 articles. Synthetic evidence did not indicate statistically significant SMD in maternal blood leptin concentration between SGA neonates and healthy controls (P = 0.172). Egger’s test showed no publication bias (P = 0.309).
What is Known:
• Monitoring leptin concentration in maternal blood would be useful for earlier identification of mothers at risk of delivering small for gestational age (SGA) neonates.
What is New:
• The results of this meta-analysis including 1734 women and their neonates in 32 overall good-quality studies showed that maternal blood leptin concentration is not significantly different between SGA neonates and healthy controls.
KeywordsBlood Leptin Meta-analysis Mothers Pregnancy Small for gestational age
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Intrauterine growth restriction
Small for gestational age
Standardized mean difference
The author is grateful to the staff of the Medical Library, the Japan Medical Association (Tokyo, Japan), for help in retrieving the full texts of the articles included in the analysis.
EG, the corresponding author, is responsible for literature search, figures, study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, and writing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.
- 2.Aydin Hİ, Demirkaya E, Karadeniz RS, Olgun A, Alpay F (2014) Assessing leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels in full-term asymmetric small for gestational age and healthy neonates. Turk J Pediatr 56:250–258Google Scholar
- 6.Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG (2011) 188.8.131.52 The standardized mean difference. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (eds) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_9/9_2_3_2_the_standardized_mean_difference.htm. Accessed 13 February 2019
- 9.Ferrero S, Mazarico E, Valls C, Di Gregorio S, Montejo R, Ibáñez L, Gomez-Roig MD (2015) Relationship between foetal growth restriction and maternal nutrition status measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor. Gynecol Obstet Investig 80:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Fu R, Vandermeer BW, Shamliyan TA, O’Neil ME, Yazdi F, Fox SH, Morton SC (2008) Handling continuous outcomes in quantitative synthesis. In: Kronick R, Slutsky JR, Chang S (eds) Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK154408/. Accessed 13 February 2019
- 12.Grisaru-Granovsky S, Eitan R, Algur N, Schimmel MS, Diamant YZ, Samueloff A (2003) Maternal and umbilical cord serum leptin concentrations in small-for-gestational-age and in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates: a maternal, fetal, or placental contribution? Biol Neonate 84:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Kyriakakou M, Malamitsi-Puchner A, Militsi H, Boutsikou T, Margeli A, Hassiakos D, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papassotiriou I, Mastorakos G (2008) Leptin and adiponectin concentrations in intrauterine growth restricted and appropriate for gestational age fetuses, neonates, and their mothers. Eur J Endocrinol 158:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Laivuori H, Gallaher MJ, Collura L, Crombleholme WR, Markovic N, Rajakumar A, Hubel CA, Roberts JM, Powers RW (2006) Relationships between maternal plasma leptin, placental leptin mRNA and protein in normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction without pre-eclampsia. Mol Hum Reprod 12:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Orbak Z, Darcan S, Coker M, Gökşen D (2001) Maternal and fetal serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), leptin levels and early postnatal growth in infants born asymmetrically small for gestational age. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 14:1119–1127Google Scholar
- 23.Pérez-Pérez A, Toro A, Vilariño-García T, Maymó J, Guadix P, Dueñas JL et al (2018) Leptin action in normal and pathological pregnancies. J Cell Mol Med 22:716–727Google Scholar
- 25.Romero R (1996) The child is the father of the man. Prenat Neonatal Med 1:8–11Google Scholar
- 29.Steichen TJ (1998) Tests for publication bias in meta-analysis. Stata Tech Bull 41:9–15Google Scholar
- 32.Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connel D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P (2014) The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed 13 February 2019
- 33.Yildiz L, Avci B, Ingeç M (2002) Umbilical cord and maternal blood leptin concentrations in intrauterine growth retardation. Clin Chem Lab Med 40:1114–1117Google Scholar