The association between psychological and social factors and spinal pain in adolescents
- 229 Downloads
Spinal pain, back pain, and/or neck pain begins early in life and is strongly associated with spinal pain in adulthood. Understanding the relationship between psychological and social factors and adolescent spinal pain may be important in both the prevention and treatment of spinal pain in this age group. We aimed to determine if psychological and social factors were associated with spinal pain in a cross-sectional study of a school-based cohort of 1279 Danish adolescents aged 11–13, who were categorized into “any” and “substantial” spinal pain. “Substantial spinal pain” was defined as a lifetime frequency of “sometimes” or “often” and a pain intensity of at least two on the revised Faces Pain Scale. Logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, were conducted for single and all variables together. Eighty-six percent of participants reported “any spinal pain” and 28% reported “substantial spinal pain”. Frequency of psychological and social factors was significantly higher in those with spinal pain compared to those without. As the frequency of psychological and social factors increased, the odds of both “any spinal pain” and “substantial spinal pain” also increased.
What is Known:
• Spinal pain begins early in life to reach adult levels by age 18. Spinal pain in adolescence is strongly associated with spinal pain in adulthood.
• In adults, psychological and social factors and spinal pain are strongly related; however, this relationship in adolescence is poorly understood.
What is New:
• Adolescents with spinal pain reported a significantly higher frequency of psychological factors and loneliness and lower levels of pupil acceptance.
• Adolescents reporting higher levels of loneliness, lower levels of pupil acceptance, and increased frequency of psychological factors had increased odds of reporting “substantial spinal pain”.
KeywordsAdolescent Back pain Psychological factor School children Social factor Spinal pain
Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children
Revised Faces Pain Scale
Young Spine Questionnaire
SB: analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. EA and JH: contributed to the interpretation of results. PS: reviewed and revised the manuscript. EB: aided in the analysis and interpretation of the data. LH: contributed substantially to the interpretation of results.
All authors contributed to the conception and study design and reviewed, revised, and approved the manuscript.
The SPACE study was provided by the Centre for Intervention Research and funded by TrygFonden.
Compliance with ethical standards
For the SPACE study, a letter was sent to parents informing them of the study and that they could withdraw their child’s participation at any time. For more details, see the SPACE protocol . The Regional Ethics Committee for Southern Denmark was advised about the study and data collection. Under Danish law, no ethics approval was needed because the study did not include any invasive tests or interventions. Approval was obtained from the Danish Data Protection Agency (#2010-41-5147).
For the current study, Research Ethics Board approval was obtained from Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (#172011).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Approval was obtained from the Danish Data Protection Agency (#2010-41-5147). Research Ethics Board approval was obtained from Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (#172011).
For the SPACE study, a letter was sent to parents informing them of the study and that they could withdraw their child’s participation at any time.
- 2.Andreucci MA, Campbell P, Dunn KM (2017) Are sleep problems a risk factor for the onset of musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents? A systematic review. Sleep 40(7):1–11Google Scholar
- 20.Kjaer P, Wedderkopp N, Korsholm L, Leboeuf-Yde C (2011) Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence. BMC Musculoskeletal Disord 12(98):1–11Google Scholar
- 21.Lauridsen HH, Hestbaek L (2013) Development of the young spine questionnaire. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 14(185):9Google Scholar
- 29.Toftager M, Christiansen LB, Kristensen PL, Troelsen J (2011) SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 11(777):11Google Scholar
- 30.Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, Carter A, Casey DC, Charlson FJ, Chen AZ, Coggeshall M, Cornaby L, Dandona L, Dicker DJ, Dilegge T, Erskine HE, Ferrari AJ, Fitzmaurice C, Fleming T, Forouzanfar MH, Fullman N, Gething PW, Goldberg EM, Graetz N, Haagsma JA, Hay SI, Johnson CO, Kassebaum NJ, Kawashima T, Kemmer L, Khalil IA, Kinfu Y, Kyu HH, Leung J, Liang X, Lim SS, Lopez AD, Lozano R, Marczak L, Mensah GA, Mokdad AH, Naghavi M, Nguyen G, Nsoesie E, Olsen H, Pigott DM, Pinho C, Rankin Z, Reinig N, Salomon JA, Sandar L, Smith A, Stanaway J, Steiner C, Teeple S, Thomas BA, Troeger C, Wagner JA, Wang H, Wanga V, Whiteford HA, Zoeckler L, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abraham B, Abubakar I, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Ackerman IN, Adebiyi AO, Ademi Z, Adou AK, Afanvi KA, Agardh EE, Agarwal A, Kiadaliri AA, Ahmadieh H, Ajala ON, Akinyemi RO, Akseer N, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam NKM, Aldhahri SF, Alegretti MA, Alemu ZA, Alexander LT, Alhabib S, Ali R, Alkerwi AA, Alla F, Allebeck P, Al-Raddadi R, Alsharif U, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amberbir A, Amini H, Ammar W, Amrock SM, Andersen HH, Anderson GM, Anderson BO, Antonio CAT, Aregay AF, Ärnlöv J, Artaman A, Asayesh H, Assadi R, Atique S, Avokpaho EFGA, Awasthi A, Quintanilla BPA, Azzopardi P, Bacha U, Badawi A, Balakrishnan K, Banerjee A, Barac A, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen T, Barregard L, Barrero LH, Basu A, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Beghi E, Bell B, Bell ML, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Benzian H, Berhane A, Bernabé E, Betsu BD, Beyene AS, Bhala N, Bhatt S, Biadgilign S, Bienhoff K, Bikbov B, Biryukov S, Bisanzio D, Bjertness E, Blore J, Borschmann R, Boufous S, Brainin M, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJK, Brown J, Buchbinder R, Buckle GC, Butt ZA, Calabria B, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano JC, Carabin H, Cárdenas R, Carpenter DO, Carrero JJ, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Rivas JC, Catalá-López F, Chang J-C, Chiang PP-C, Chibueze CE, Chisumpa VH, Choi J-YJ, Chowdhury R, Christensen H, Christopher DJ, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Coates MM, Colquhoun SM, Cooper C, Cortinovis M, Crump JA, Damtew SA, Dandona R, Daoud F, Dargan PI, das Neves J, Davey G, Davis AC, Leo DD, Degenhardt L, Gobbo LCD, Dellavalle RP, Deribe K, Deribew A, Derrett S, Jarlais DCD, Dharmaratne SD, Dhillon PK, Diaz-Torné C, Ding EL, Driscoll TR, Duan L, Dubey M, Duncan BB, Ebrahimi H, Ellenbogen RG, Elyazar I, Endres M, Endries AY, Ermakov SP, Eshrati B, Estep K, Farid TA, Farinha CSES, Faro A, Farvid MS, Farzadfar F, Feigin VL, Felson DT, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes JG, Fernandes JC, Fischer F, Fitchett JRA, Foreman K, Fowkes FGR, Fox J, Franklin RC, Friedman J, Frostad J, Fürst T, Futran ND, Gabbe B, Ganguly P, Gankpé FG, Gebre T, Gebrehiwot TT, Gebremedhin AT, Geleijnse JM, Gessner BD, Gibney KB, Ginawi IAM, Giref AZ, Giroud M, Gishu MD, Giussani G, Glaser E, Godwin WW, Gomez-Dantes H, Gona P, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Gotay CC, Goto A, Gouda HN, Grainger R, Greaves F, Guillemin F, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta V, Gutiérrez RA, Haile D, Hailu AD, Hailu GB, Halasa YA, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hammami M, Hancock J, Handal AJ, Hankey GJ, Hao Y, Harb HL, Harikrishnan S, Haro JM, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Heredia-Pi IB, Heydarpour P, Hoek HW, Horino M, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Hoy DG, Htet AS, Huang H, Huang JJ, Huynh C, Iannarone M, Iburg KM, Innos K, Inoue M, Iyer VJ, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Jakovljevic MB, Javanbakht M, Jayaraman SP, Jayatilleke AU, Jee SH, Jeemon P, Jensen PN, Jiang Y, Jibat T, Jimenez-Corona A, Jin Y, Jonas JB, Kabir Z, Kalkonde Y, Kamal R, Kan H, Karch A, Karema CK, Karimkhani C, Kasaeian A, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Keiyoro PN, Kemp AH, Keren A, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khan AR, Khan EA, Khang Y-H, Khera S, Khoja TAM, Khubchandani J, Kieling C, Kim P, Kim C-i, Kim D, Kim YJ, Kissoon N, Knibbs LD, Knudsen AK, Kokubo Y, Kolte D, Kopec JA, Kosen S, Kotsakis GA, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Kravchenko M, Defo BK, Bicer BK, Kudom AA, Kuipers EJ, Kumar GA, Kutz M, Kwan GF, Lal A, Lalloo R, Lallukka T, Lam H, Lam JO, Langan SM, Larsson A, Lavados PM, Leasher JL, Leigh J, Leung R, Levi M, Li Y, Li Y, Liang J, Liu S, Liu Y, Lloyd BK, Lo WD, Logroscino G, Looker KJ, Lotufo PA, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Mackay MT, Magdy M, Razek AE, Mahdavi M, Majdan M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Marcenes W, Margolis DJ, Martinez-Raga J, Masiye F, Massano J, McGarvey ST, McGrath JJ, McKee M, McMahon BJ, Meaney PA, Mehari A, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Mekonnen AB, Melaku YA, Memiah P, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mhimbira FA, Millear A, Miller TR, Mills EJ, Mirarefin M, Mitchell PB, Mock CN, Mohammadi A, Mohammed S, Monasta L, Hernandez JCM, Montico M, Mooney MD, Moradi-Lakeh M, Morawska L, Mueller UO, Mullany E, Mumford JE, Murdoch ME, Nachega JB, Nagel G, Naheed A, Naldi L, Nangia V, Newton JN, Ng M, Ngalesoni FN, Nguyen QL, Nisar MI, PMN P, Nolla JM, Norheim OF, Norman RE, Norrving B, Nunes BP, Ogbo FA, Oh I-H, Ohkubo T, Olivares PR, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Ortiz A, Osman M, Ota E, Pa M, Park E-K, Parsaeian M, de Azeredo Passos VM, Caicedo AJP, Patten SB, Patton GC, Pereira DM, Perez-Padilla R, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Piel FB, Pillay JD, Pishgar F, Plass D, Platts-Mills JA, Polinder S, Pond CD, Popova S, Poulton RG, Pourmalek F, Prabhakaran D, Prasad NM, Qorbani M, RHS R, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, MHU R, Rahman SU, Rai RK, Rajsic S, Ram U, Rao P, Refaat AH, Reitsma MB, Remuzzi G, Resnikoff S, Reynolds A, Ribeiro AL, Blancas MJR, Roba HS, Rojas-Rueda D, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Roth GA, Rothenbacher D, Roy A, Sagar R, Sahathevan R, Sanabria JR, Sanchez-Niño MD, Santos IS, Santos JV, Sarmiento-Suarez R, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Savic M, Sawhney M, Schaub MP, Schmidt MI, Schneider IJC, Schöttker B, Schwebel DC, Scott JG, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Shackelford KA, Shaheen A, Shaikh MA, Sharma R, Sharma U, Shen J, Shepard DS, Sheth KN, Shibuya K, Shin M-J, Shiri R, Shiue I, Shrime MG, Sigfusdottir ID, Silva DAS, Silveira DGA, Singh A, Singh JA, Singh OP, Singh PK, Sivonda A, Skirbekk V, Skogen JC, Sligar A, Sliwa K, Soljak M, Søreide K, Sorensen RJD, Soriano JB, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Stathopoulou V, Steel N, Stein DJ, Steiner TJ, Steinke S, Stovner L, Stroumpoulis K, Sunguya BF, Sur P, Swaminathan S, Sykes BL, Szoeke CEI, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Takala JS, Tandon N, Tanne D, Tavakkoli M, Taye B, Taylor HR, Ao BJT, Tedla BA, Terkawi AS, Thomson AJ, Thorne-Lyman AL, Thrift AG, Thurston GD, Tobe-Gai R, Tonelli M, Topor-Madry R, Topouzis F, Tran BX, Truelsen T, Dimbuene ZT, Tsilimbaris M, Tura AK, Tuzcu EM, Tyrovolas S, Ukwaja KN, Undurraga EA, Uneke CJ, Uthman OA, van Gool CH, Varakin YY, Vasankari T, Venketasubramanian N, Verma RK, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Wagner GR, Waller SG, Wang L, Watkins DA, Weichenthal S, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Werdecker A, Westerman R, White RA, Williams HC, Wiysonge CS, Wolfe CDA, Won S, Woodbrook R, Wubshet M, Xavier D, Xu G, Yadav AK, Yan LL, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Ye P, Yebyo HG, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon S-J, Younis MZ, Yu C, Zaidi Z, MES Z, Zeeb H, Zhou M, Zodpey S, Zuhlke LJ, Murray CJL (2016) Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015. Lancet 388(10053):1545–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar