Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory lung disease of premature infants, with serious short- and long-term consequences. Early identification of premature infants at risk of BPD is critical to preventing the pathogenesis of disease. Thus, in the present study, we recruited 126 premature infants, collected peripheral blood samples at different time points during early life, and measured the concentration of Th1 (MCP-1, IP-10, and MIG) and Th2 (eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, and MCP-4) chemokines in serum. We found serum eotaxin-2 levels were significantly higher in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group on day 1 [1662 pg/ml vs. 1221 pg/ml, P < 0.05], day 7 [1533 pg/ml vs. 1089 pg/ml, P < 0.05], and day 14 [1246 pg/ml vs. 704 pg/ml, P < 0.05] after birth, and serum MCP-4 levels were also significantly higher in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group on day 1 [186 pg/ml vs. 128 pg/ml, P < 0.05], day 7 [199 pg/ml vs. 101 pg/ml, P < 0.05], and day 14 [238 pg/ml vs. 106 pg/ml, P < 0.05] of life.
Conclusions: Increased levels of Th2 chemokines, eotaxin-2, and MCP-4, are associated with BPD in premature infants.
What is Known:
• The pathogenesis of BPD is multifactorial and it is difficult to predict and prevent.
• Previous studies have demonstrated that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of BPD.
What is New:
• Increased Th2 chemokines, eotaxin-2 and MCP-4, were associated with BPD in premature infants.
• Abnormal Th1/Th2 response in early life maybe associated with the subsequent development of BPD, which provide a new insight to understand the pathogenesis of the disease.
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The authors thank the study participants and their parents. In addition, the authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0211705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81601326).
Participated in research design: Hanmin Liu, Huajing Wan, and Dan Zhou.
Conducted experiments: Dan Zhou and Fang Shi.
Performed data analysis: Fang Shi, Ying Xiong, and Min Zhou.
Wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: Dan Zhou, Fang Shi, and Hanmin Liu.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants’ parents included in the study.
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