European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 177, Issue 5, pp 765–773 | Cite as

Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

  • Senem Simsek
  • Deniz Inal-InceEmail author
  • Aslihan Cakmak
  • Nagehan Emiralioglu
  • Ebru Calik-Kutukcu
  • Melda Saglam
  • Naciye Vardar-Yagli
  • Hayriye Ugur Ozcelik
  • Hazal Sonbahar-Ulu
  • Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel
  • Nural Kiper
  • Hulya Arikan
Original Article


Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). In PCD, the MAP was significantly correlated with age, FEV1, and the mean kcal for 3 days (p < 0.05), and age was its independent predictor (p < 0.05). The MSWT distance was significantly related to gender and weight (p < 0.05), and gender was selected as its independent predictor (p < 0.05). In healthy controls, the MAP was significantly associated with age, gender, FVC, FEV1, HGS, QMS, and the mean kcal for three days (p < 0.05). The MSWT distance was significantly related to weight and body mass index in healthy group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Anaerobic and aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study.

What is Known:

Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power.

Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function.

What is New:

The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages.

Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.


Primary ciliary dyskinesia Pulmonary function test Children Exercise test Muscle strength 



Body mass index


Forced expiratory volume in 1 s


Forced expiratory volume in 1 s


Forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75%


Forced vital capacity


Hand grip strength


Mean anaerobic power


Modified shuttle walk test


Muscle power sprint test


Primary ciliary dyskinesia


Quadriceps strength


Oxygen saturation


Authors’ contributions

Senem Simsek: conception and design of study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Deniz Inal-Ince: conception and design of study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript, revising the manuscript for intellectual content, and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Aslihan Cakmak: acquisition of data and drafting the manuscript.

Nagehan Emiralioglu: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Ebru Calik-Kutukcu: acquisition of data and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Melda Saglam: revising the manuscript for intellectual content and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Naciye Vardar-Yagli: revising the manuscript for intellectual content and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published.

Hayriye Ugur Ozcelik: acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data.

Hazal Sonbahar-Ulu: acquisition of data and drafting the manuscript.

Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel: acquisition of data and drafting the manuscript.

Nural Kiper: revising the manuscript for intellectual content.

Hulya Arikan: revising the manuscript for intellectual content.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The approval for the study was obtained from Hacettepe University Ethics Committee (GO 13/295). All procedures performed in the study were by the ethical standards of the institutional Ethics Committee (GO 13/295) and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Inform consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants and their parents included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Senem Simsek
    • 1
  • Deniz Inal-Ince
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aslihan Cakmak
    • 1
  • Nagehan Emiralioglu
    • 3
  • Ebru Calik-Kutukcu
    • 1
  • Melda Saglam
    • 1
  • Naciye Vardar-Yagli
    • 1
  • Hayriye Ugur Ozcelik
    • 3
  • Hazal Sonbahar-Ulu
    • 1
  • Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel
    • 1
  • Nural Kiper
    • 3
  • Hulya Arikan
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy and RehabilitationHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and RehabilitationHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Medical School, Pediatric Pulmonology DepartmentHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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