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Cord-blood lipoproteins, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity/resistance marker profile, and concurrence of dysglycaemia and dyslipaemia in full-term neonates of the Mérida Study

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Abstract

Early alterations in glucose homeostasis increase the risk of developing insulin resistance and obesity later in life. The concurrence of altered lipids and insulin sensitivity/resistance markers at birth has been scarcely investigated. The study aimed to ascertain level ranges of homocysteine (tHcyt), arylesterase (AE), lipids/lipoproteins, and insulin resistance/sensitivity markers in full-term neonates and to determine the concurrence effect of dyslipaemia and dysglycaemia on those parameters at birth. Participants were 197 full-term, 2.5 to <4.0 kg, without foetal distress Spanish newborns from the Mérida Study. Parameter percentiles for males and females were stated. The effect of the concurrence high glucose/high triglycerides (high glucose/high TG) or high glucose/low cholesterol transported by HDL (HDL-c) on tHcyt, LDL-c, HDL-c, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), oxidised LDL (oxLDL), AE, glucose, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was studied. Females had higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-c, Apo A1, Lp(a) and HDL-c/Apo A1, but lower relative transport of TC (%TC) by the very low lipoprotein fraction than males. No gender differences were found for glucose, HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Neonates at the 2.5- to 2.999-kg range display more adequate HOMA-IR and QUICKI levels that their >3.0 kg counterparts. The concurrence of high glucose/high TG or high glucose/low HDL-c increased TC/HDL-c and HOMA-IR, but decreased, oxLDL, oxLDL/LDL-c and QUICKI with respect to that of low glucose/low TG or glucose/high HDL-c. The concurrence glucose/TG has predictive value for low QUICKI, whilst that of glucose/HDL-c for low QUICKI and high HOMA-IR, suggesting the importance of routine TG, HDL-c and glucose screening at birth as it would identify candidates for insulin resistance.

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Fig. 1
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Abbreviations

AE:

Arylesterase

Apo:

Apolipoproteins

AUC:

Area under the curve

BMI:

Body mass index

CVD:

Cardiovascular disease

DM:

Diabetes mellitus

DMT2:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

HDL-c:

Cholesterol transported by HDL

HOMA-IR:

Homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance

tHcyt:

Total homocysteine

LDL-c:

Cholesterol transported by LDL

Lp(a):

Lipoprotein (a)

MS:

Metabolic syndrome

oxLDL:

Oxidised LDL

PON1:

Paraoxonase-1

QUICKI:

Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index

TC:

Total cholesterol

TG:

Triglycerides

VLDL:

Very low-density lipoproteins

%TC:

Relative transport of TC

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Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by the Spanish AGL-2008 04892-C03. Thanks are due to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department and Laboratory Services of Mérida Hospital (Badajoz, Spain) and to participant mothers and children. We acknowledge the statistical assistance of Dras Carmen Bravo and Mar Ruperto.

Disclosure statement

The authors have nothing to disclose.

Author information

Correspondence to Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz.

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Gesteiro, E., Bastida, S. & Sánchez-Muniz, F.J. Cord-blood lipoproteins, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity/resistance marker profile, and concurrence of dysglycaemia and dyslipaemia in full-term neonates of the Mérida Study. Eur J Pediatr 172, 883–894 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-013-1959-x

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Keywords

  • Neonates
  • Homocysteine
  • Lipoproteins
  • Insulin sensitivity/resistance makers
  • Concurrence of risk factors