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Factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised children and adolescents aged 6 months to 13 years old


According to the World Health Organisation, community-acquired pneumonia is the main cause of paediatric death, accounting for 20 % of deaths in children younger than 5 years old, and 90 % of these deaths occur in non-industrialised countries. This study has as objective to evaluate the influence of socio-economic, environmental and breastfeeding factors on the occurrence of pneumonia. An unmatched case–control study was conducted in children aged 6 months to 13 years old at a children’s hospital in Brazil. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was performed to determine the variables used to predict pneumonia. A total of 252 children were selected. In the adjusted (by age) multivariate analysis, the following variables were associated with community-acquired pneumonia: (a) protective factors: breastfeeding >3 months, absence of other unrelated comorbidities, non-smoking mother, being the only child, child’s age >5 years and mother’s age >19 years old; (b) risk factors: maternal education <8 years and child’s birth order [≥second]. In the multivariate analysis, considering only children from 6 months to 5 years old, the following variables were associated with community-acquired pneumonia: (a) protective factors: breastfeeding >3 months, non-smoking mother and no smokers in the child’s bedroom; (b) risk factors: maternal education <8 years and prenatal complications. Conclusion: These findings contribute favourably to effectively minimising the risk factors related to the disease process and natural history of community-acquired pneumonia.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest

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Correspondence to Altacílio A. Nunes.

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Barsam, F.J.B.G., Borges, G.S.D., Severino, A.B.A. et al. Factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised children and adolescents aged 6 months to 13 years old. Eur J Pediatr 172, 493–499 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-012-1909-z

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  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Children
  • Hospitalisation
  • Case–control study