To investigate the biological and socioeconomic factors associated with developmental attainment in socioeconomically disadvantaged children. This study was performed at the Dr. Sami Ulus Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, between January and December 2010. The effects of biological, socioeconomic risk factors on developmental delay were investigated in 692 children (3 months–5 years) using the Denver II. Low-level maternal education (odds ratio [OR], 11.118; 95 % CI, 4.211–29.351), low-level paternal education (OR, 2.107; 95 % CI, 1.333–3.331), low-level household income (OR, 2.673; 95 % CI, 1.098–2.549), and ≥3 children in the family (OR, 1.871; 95 % CI, 1.206–2.903) were strongly associated with abnormal on Denver II; biological risk factors, including birth weight, gestational age at birth, and maternal age at birth <20 years, were correlated with suspect on Denver II results based on univariate analysis. Low-level maternal education (OR, 6.281; 95 % CI, 2.193–17.989), premature birth (32–36 weeks of gestation; OR, 0.535; 95 % CI, 0.290–0.989) were strongly associated with abnormal on Denver II results, and low-level paternal education (OR, 3.088; 95 % CI, 1.521–6.268), low-level household income (OR, 1.813; 95 % CI, 1.069–3.077), low birth weight (<1,500 g; OR, 3.003; 95 % CI, 1.316–6.854), premature birth (27–31 weeks of gestation; OR, 2.612; 95 % CI, 1.086–6.286), and maternal age at birth <20 years (OR, 3.518; 95 % CI, 1.173–10.547) were strongly associated with suspect on Denver II results based on multivariate analysis.
Socioeconomic risk factors were observed to be as important as biological risk factors in the development of children aged 3 months–5 years.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abubakar A, Holding P, Van de Vijver FJ, Newton C, Van Baar A (2010) Children at risk for developmental delay can be recognised by stunting, being underweight, ill health, little maternal schooling or high gravidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:652–659
Bayoglu BU, Bakar EE, Kutlu M, Karabulut E, Anlar B (2007) Can preschool developmental screening identify children at risk for school problems? Early Hum Dev 83:613–617
Bennett FC, Guralnick MJ (1991) Effectiveness of developmental intervention in the first 5 years of life. Pediatr Clin North Am 38:1513–1528
Bradley RH, Corwyn RF (2002) Socioeconomic status and child development. Annu Rev Psychol 53:371–399
Bradley RH, Corwyn RF, McAdoo HP, Coll CG (2001) The home environments of children in the United States part I: variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. Child Dev 72:1844–1867
Chiu SH, DiMarco MA (2010) A pilot study comparing two developmental screening tools for use with homeless children. J Pediatr Health Care 24:73–80
Duncan GJ, Brooks-Gunn J, Klebanov PK (1994) Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Dev 65:296–318
Durmazlar N, Ozturk C, Ural B, Karaagaoglu E, Anlar B (1998) Turkish children’s performance on Denver II: effect of sex and mother’s education. Dev Med Child Neurol 40:411–416
Emerson E, Graham H, McCulloch A, Blacher J, Hatton C, Llewellyn G (2009) The social context of parenting 3-year-old children with developmental delay in the UK. Child Care Health Dev 35:63–70
Engle PL, Fernald LC, Alderman H, Behrman J, O’Gara C, Yousafzai A, de Mello MC, Hidrobo M, Ulkuer N, Ertem I, Iltus S (2011) Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 378:1339–1353
Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B (2007) Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet 369:60–70
Guralnick MJ (2010) Early intervention approaches to enhance the peer-related social competence of young children with developmental delays: a historical perspective. Infants Young Child 23:73–83
Guralnick MJ (2011) Why early intervention works: a systems perspective. Infants Young Child 24:6–28
Halpern R, Barros AJ, Matijasevich A, Santos IS, Victora CG, Barros FC (2008) Developmental status at age 12 months according to birth weight and family income: a comparison of two Brazilian birth cohorts. Cad Saude Publica 24(Suppl 3):S444–S450
Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Ruan WJ, Troendle JF (2002) Birthweight and gestational age effects on motor and social development. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 16:33–46
Hertzman C, Wiens M (1996) Child development and long-term outcomes: a population health perspective and summary of successful interventions. Soc Sci Med 43:1083–1095
Lugo-Gil J, Tamis-LeMonda CS (2008) Family resources and parenting quality: links to children’s cognitive development across the first 3 years. Child Dev 79:1065–1085
Lung FW, Shu BC, Chiang TL, Lin SJ (2011) Maternal mental health and childrearing context in the development of children at 6, 18 and 36 months: a Taiwan birth cohort pilot study. Child Care Health Dev 37:211–223
McCarton CM, Brooks-Gunn J, Wallace IF, Bauer CR, Bennett FC, Bernbaum JC, Broyles RS, Casey PH, McCormick MC, Scott DT, Tyson J, Tonascia J, Meinert CL (1997) Results at age 8 years of early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants. The infant health and development program. JAMA 277:126–132
Palfrey JS, Singer JD, Walker DK, Butler JA (1987) Early identification of children’s special needs: a study in five metropolitan communities. J Pediatr 111:651–659
Porterfield SL, McBride TD (2007) The effect of poverty and caregiver education on perceived need and access to health services among children with special health care needs. Am J Public Health 97:323–329
Resegue R, Puccini RF, Silva EM (2008) Risk factors associated with developmental abnormalities among high-risk children attended at a multidisciplinary clinic. Sao Paulo Med J 126:4–10
To T, Guttmann A, Dick PT, Rosenfield JD, Parkin PC, Tassoudji M, Vydykhan TN, Cao H, Harris JK (2004) Risk markers for poor developmental attainment in young children: results from a longitudinal national survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158:643–649
We would like to thank Scott B. Evans for English language editing.
Conflict of interest
We as the authors state that there is no conflict of interest and the work is not a part of any commercial organization.
Dr Sami Ulus Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital (no. B.1041SM4060017, 20.05.09*3425).
About this article
Cite this article
Ozkan, M., Senel, S., Arslan, E.A. et al. The socioeconomic and biological risk factors for developmental delay in early childhood. Eur J Pediatr 171, 1815–1821 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-012-1826-1
- Child development
- Denver II
- Parental education
- Socioeconomic risk factors
- Biological risk factors