Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests in children: review of the literature from 1999 to 2009

Abstract

The array of tests that can be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection is large, and it can be confusing to define which test to use particularly in children where results may not be comparable to those obtained in adult patients. Using PubMed, we reviewed the English literature from January 1999 to May 2009 to identify articles that determined sensitivity and specificity of H. pylori invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests in children. We excluded articles that presented a review of the literature, abstracts, case reports, or series where children’s results could not be separated from adult populations. Of the tissue based methods, rapid urease tests have better sensitivity than histology to detect presence of H. pylori; however, histology can detect the pathology associated with disease including gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and other conditions that could be the cause of the child’s symptoms. Culture of gastric tissues or stool has 100% specificity but sensitivity is low. Of the serologic tests, immunoblot has the best sensitivity. The urea breath tests have >75% sensitivity for detection of H. pylori before and after treatment. Immunoassays in stool using monoclonal antibodies have >95% sensitivity for detection of H. pylori before and after treatment. PCR testing can be performed in tissue and stool samples and can detect genes associated to antibiotic resistance. In summary, the current commercial non-invasive tests have adequate sensitivity and specificity for detecting the presence of H. pylori; however, endoscopy with histopathology is the only method that can detect H. pylori and lesions associated with the infection.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Antos D, Crone J, Konstantopoulos N, Koletzko S (2005) Evaluation of a novel rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay for detection of monoclonal Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool samples from children. J Clin Microbiol 43:2598–2601

  2. 2.

    Asfeldt A, Løchen M, Straume B et al (2004) Accuracy of a monoclonal antibody-based stool antigen test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Scand J Gastroenterol 39:1073–1077

  3. 3.

    Ballam L, Mendall M, Asante M et al (2000) Western blotting is useful in the salivary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. J Clin Pathol 53:314–317

  4. 4.

    Bassoli F, Cecchini L, Corvaglia L et al (2000) Validation of the 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol 95:646–650

  5. 5.

    Bode G, Marchildon P, Peacock J et al (2002) Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: comparison of salivary immunoglobulin G antibody test with the [13C]urea breath test. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:493–495

  6. 6.

    Bonamico M, Strappini P, Bonci E et al (2004) Evaluation of stool antigen test, PCR on oral samples and serology for the noninvasive detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Helicobacter 9:69–76

  7. 7.

    Booka M, Okuda M, Shin K et al (2005) Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection in children using stool sample. Helicobacter 10:205–213

  8. 8.

    Bourke B, Ceponis P, Chiba N et al (2005) Canadian helicobacter study group consensus conference: update on the approach to Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents—an evidence-based evaluation. Can J Gastroenterol 19:399–408

  9. 9.

    Braden B, Gelbmann C, Dietrich C et al (2001) Qualitative and quantitative clinical evaluation of the laser-assisted ratio analyzer for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by 13C-urea breath tests. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:807–810

  10. 10.

    Braden B, Posselt H, Ahrens P et al (2000) New immunoassay in stool provides an accurate noninvasive diagnostic method for Helicobacter pylori screening in children. Pediatrics 106:115–117

  11. 11.

    Canete A, Abunaji Y, Avarez-Calatayud G et al (2003) Breath test using a single 50-mg dose of 13C-urea to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 36:105–111

  12. 12.

    Cardenas V, Dominguez D, Puentes F et al (2008) Evaluation of a novel stool native catalase antigen test for Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic North American children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46:399–402

  13. 13.

    Caristo E, Parola A, Rapa A et al (2008) Clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from children' gastric antrum and fundus as assessed by fluorescent in-situ hybridization and culture on four-sector agar plates. Helicobacter 13:557–563

  14. 14.

    de Carvalho-Costa-Cardinali L, Rocha G, Rocha A et al (2003) Evaluation of 13C urea breath test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children from developing country. J Clin Microbiol 41:3334–3335

  15. 15.

    Cattoir V, Nectoux J, Lascols C et al (2007) Update on fluoroquinolone resistance in Helicobacter pylori: new mutations leading to resistance and first description of a gyrA polymorphism associated with hypersusceptibility. Int J Antimicrob Ag 29:389–396

  16. 16.

    Ceylan A, Kirimi E, Tuncer O et al (2007) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children and their family members in a district in Turkey. J Health Popul Nutr 25:422–427

  17. 17.

    Cherian S, Burgner D, Carson C et al (2008) Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in a high-prevalence pediatric population: a comparison of 2 fecal antigen testing methods and serology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:130–135

  18. 18.

    Corvaglia L, Bontems P, Devaster J et al (1999) Accuracy of serology and 13C-urea breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 18:976–979

  19. 19.

    Day A, Sherman P (2002) Accuracy of office-based immunoassays for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Helicobacter 7:205–209

  20. 20.

    Day A, van Zanten SV, Otley A et al (2003) Use of LARA-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents: a preliminary study. Can J Gastroenterol 17:701–706

  21. 21.

    Delvin E, Brazier J, Deslandres C et al (1999) Accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori gastritis in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 28:59–62

  22. 22.

    de-Oliveira A, Rocha G, Queiroz D et al (1999) Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children from different age groups with and without duodenal ulcer. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 28:157–161

  23. 23.

    Dixon M, Genta R, Yardley J et al (1996) Classification and grading of gastritis. The updated Sydney system. Am J Surg Pathol 20:1161–1181

  24. 24.

    Dondi E, Rapa A, Boldorini R et al (2006) High accuracy of non-invasive tests to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 149:817–821

  25. 25.

    Drumm B, Koletzko S, Oderda G (2000) Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a consensus statement. European Paediatric Task Force on Helicobacter pylori. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:207–213

  26. 26.

    el-Zimaity H, Graham D (1999) Evaluation of gastric mucosal biopsy site and number for identification of Helicobacter pylori on intestinal metaplasia: role of the Sydney system. Hum Pathol 30:72–77

  27. 27.

    Elistur Y, Neace C (1999) Detection of Helicobacter pylori organisms by Hp-Fast in children. Dig Dis Sci 44:1169–1172

  28. 28.

    Elitsur Y, Lawrence Z, Hill I (2004) The accuracy of stool antigen for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children—a prospective study. J Pediatr Gastroentrol Nutr 39:64–67

  29. 29.

    Elitsur Y, Tolia V, Gilger M et al (2009) Urea breath test in children: the United States prospective, multicenter study. Helicobacter 14:134–140

  30. 30.

    Eltumi M, Brueton M, Francis N (1999) Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in children using the 13C-urea breath test. J Clin Gastroenterol 28:238–240

  31. 31.

    Eshun J, Black D, Casteel H et al (2001) Comparison of immunohistochemistry and silver stain for the diagnosis of pediatric Helicobacter pylori infection in urease-negative gastric biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol 4:82–88

  32. 32.

    Falsafi T, Favaedi R, Mahjoub F, Najafi M (2009) Application of stool-PCR test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. World J Gastroenterol 28:484–488

  33. 33.

    Falsafi T, Valizadeh N, Najafi M et al (2007) Culture of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples in children. Can J Microbiol 53:411–416

  34. 34.

    Falsafi T, Valizadeh N, Sepehr S, Najafi M (2005) Application of a stool antigen test to evaluate the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents from Tehran, Iran. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:1094–1097

  35. 35.

    Feydt-Schmidt A, Russmann H, Lehn N et al (2002) Fluorescence in situ hybridization vs. epsilometer test for detection of clarithromycin-susceptible and clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in gastric biopsies from children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:2073–2079

  36. 36.

    Frenck R, Fathy H, Sherif M et al (2006) Sensitivity and specificity of various tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in Egyptian children. Pediatrics 118:195–202

  37. 37.

    Gatta L, Vakil N, Ricci C et al (2004) Effect of proton pump inhibitors and antacid therapy on 13C urea breath tests and stool test for Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 99:823–829

  38. 38.

    Gilger M, Tolia V, Johnson A et al (2002) The use of oral fluid immunoglobulin G ELISA for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Helicobacter 7:105–110

  39. 39.

    Gisbert J, de-la-Morena F, Abraira V (2006) Accuracy of monoclonal stool antigen test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 101:1921–1930

  40. 40.

    Gisbert J, Trapero M, Calvet X et al (2004) Evaluation of three different tests for the detection of stool antigens to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 19:923–929

  41. 41.

    Goel N, Sherwal B, Patwari A et al (2003) Evaluation of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic modalities for Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Indian Pediatr 2003:141–146

  42. 42.

    Gold B, Colletti R, Abbott M et al (2000) Helicobacter pylori infection in children: recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:490–497

  43. 43.

    Gosciniak G, Przondo-Mordarska A, Iwanczak B, Blitek A (2003) Helicobacter pylori antigens in stool specimens of gastritis children before and after treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 36:376–380

  44. 44.

    Guarner J, Bartlett J, Whistler T et al (2003) Can pre-neoplastic lesions be detected in gastric biopsies of children with Helicobacter pylori infection? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutri 37:309–314

  45. 45.

    Guarner J, Herrera-Goepfert R, Mohar A et al (2003) Diagnostic yield of gastric biopsy specimens when screening for preneoplastic lesions. Hum Pathol 34:28–31

  46. 46.

    Harris P, Perez-Perez G, Zylberberg A et al (2005) Relevance of adjusted cut-off values in commercial serological immunoassays for Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Dig Dis Sci 50:2103–2109

  47. 47.

    Hauser B, Wybo I, Tshibuabua G et al (2006) Multiple-step polyclonal versus one-step monoclonal enzyme immunoassay in the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stools of children. Acta Paediatr 95:297–301

  48. 48.

    Herold R, Becker M (2002) 3C-urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. BMC Gastroenterology 2:1–6

  49. 49.

    Hino B, Eliakim R, Levine A et al (2004) Comparison of invasive and non-invasive tests diagnosis and monitoring of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:519–523

  50. 50.

    Husson M, Rolland C, Gottrand F et al (2000) Evaluation of a Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for the diagnosis and follow-up of infections in children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19:787–789

  51. 51.

    Imrie C, Rowland M, Bourke B, Drumm B (2001) Limitations to carbon 13-labeled urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori in infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 139:734–737

  52. 52.

    Kalach N, Nguyen V, Bergeret M et al (2005) Usefulness and influence of age of a novel rapid monoclonal enzyme immunoassay stool antigen for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 52:157–160

  53. 53.

    Kato S, Nakajima S, Nishino Y et al (2006) Association between gastric atrophy and Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese children: a retrospective multicenter study. Dig Dis Sci 51:99–104

  54. 54.

    Kato S, Nakayama K, Minoura T et al (2004) Comparison between the 13C urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 39:1045–1050

  55. 55.

    Kato S, Ozawa K, Konno M et al (2002) Diagnostic accuracy of the 13C urea breath test for childhood Helicobacter pylori infection: a multicenter Japanese study. Am J Gastroenterol 97:1668–1673

  56. 56.

    Kato S, Ozawa K, Okuda M et al (2003) Accuracy of the stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection: a multicenter Japanese study. Am J Gastroenterol 98:296–300

  57. 57.

    Kato S, Ozawa K, Okuda M et al (2004) Multicenter comparison of rapid lateral flow stool antigen immunoassay and stool antigen enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Helicobacter 9:669–673

  58. 58.

    Kato S, Tachikawa T, Ozawa K et al (2001) Urine-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Pediatr 107:1–5

  59. 59.

    Kawakami E, Machado R, Reber M, Patricio F (2002) 13C urea breath test with infrared spectroscopy for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 35:39–43

  60. 60.

    Kindermann A, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B et al (2000) Influence of age on 13C-urea breath test results in children. J Peditar Gastroenterol Nutr 30:85–91

  61. 61.

    Kindermann A, Faus-Kessler T, Ballauff A et al (2001) Evaluation of a rapid whole blood test to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Scand J Gastroenterol 6:572–576

  62. 62.

    Kindermann A, Konstantopoulos N, Lehn N et al (2001) Evaluation of two commercial enzyme immunoassays, testing immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses, for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Clin Microbiol 39:3591–3596

  63. 63.

    Koletzko S, Konstantopoulos N, Bosman D et al (2003) Evaluation of a novel monoclonal enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool from children. Gut 52:804–806

  64. 64.

    Koletzko S, Richy F, Bontems P et al (2006) Prospective multicenter study on antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains obtained from children living in Europe. Gut 55:1711–1716

  65. 65.

    Kolho K, Klemola T, Koivusalo A, Rautelin H (2006) Stool antigen tests for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in children. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55:269–273

  66. 66.

    Konstantopoulos N, Russmann H, Tasch C et al (2001) Evaluation of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Am J Gastroenterol 96:677–683

  67. 67.

    Kori M, Goldstein E, Granot E (2009) Helicobacter pylori infection in young children detected by monoclonal stool antigen immunoassay. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:157–159

  68. 68.

    Kuloğlu Z, Kansu A, Kırsaçlıoğlu C et al (2008) A rapid lateral flow stool antigen immunoassay and 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:351–356

  69. 69.

    Leal Y, Flores L, García-Cortés L et al (2008) Antibody-based detection tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 3(e3751):1–11

  70. 70.

    Leong R, Lee C, Ling T et al (2003) Evaluation of the string test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Word J Gastroenterol 9:309–311

  71. 71.

    Levine A, Shevah O, Miloh T et al (2004) Validation of a novel real time 13C urea breath test for rapid evaluation of Helicobacter pylori in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 145:112–114

  72. 72.

    Lottspeich C, Schwarzer A, Panthel K et al (2007) Evaluation of the novel Helicobacter pylori ClariRes real-time PCR assay for detection and clarithromycin susceptibility testing of H. pylori in stool specimens from symptomatic children. J Clin Microbiol 45:1718–1722

  73. 73.

    Machado R, Patricio F, Kawakami E (2004) 13C urea breath test to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection in children aged up to 6 years. Helicobacter 9:39–45

  74. 74.

    Madani S, Rabah R, Tolia V (2000) Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection from antral biopsies in pediatric patients: is urease test that reliable? Dig Dis Sci 45:1233–1237

  75. 75.

    Mahir G, Aydin V, Tufan K et al (2005) Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test. Indian J Pediatr 72:675–678

  76. 76.

    Makristathis A, Barousch W, Pasching E et al (2000) Two enzyme immunoassays and PCR for detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool specimens from pediatric patients before and after eradication therapy. J Clin Microbiol 38:3710–3714

  77. 77.

    Malaty H, Haveman T, Graham D, Fraley K (2002) Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children: impact of epidemiologic factors on accuracy of diagnostic tests. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutri 35:59–63

  78. 78.

    Malaty H, Logan N, Graham D, Ramchatesingh J (2000) Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children: comparison of diagnostic tests. Helicobacter 5:155–159

  79. 79.

    Megraud F, European-Paediatric-Task-Force-on-Helicobacter-pylori (2004) Comparison of non-invasive tests to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents: results of a multicenter European study. J Pediatr 10:198–203

  80. 80.

    Naous A, Al-Tannir M, Naja Z et al (2007) Fecoprevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection among asymptomatic children in Lebanon. J Med Liban 55:138–144

  81. 81.

    Nares-Cisneros J, Jaramillo-Rodríguez Y, Martínez-Ordaz V et al (2007) Immunochromatographic monoclonal test for detection of Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool is useful in children from high-prevalence developing country. Helicobacter 12:354–358

  82. 82.

    Nguyen T, Bengtsson C, Nguyen G, Granström M (2008) Evaluation of a novel monoclonal-based antigen-in-stool enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSA PLUS) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Vietnamese children. Helicobacter 13:269–273

  83. 83.

    Ni Y, Lin J, Huang S et al (2000) Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by stool antigen test and 6 other currently available tests in children. J Pediatr 136:823–827

  84. 84.

    Oderda G, Rapa A, Marinello D et al (2001) Usefulness of Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test to monitor response to eradication treatment in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:203–206

  85. 85.

    Oderda G, Rapa A, Ronchi B et al (2000) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool specimens by non-invasive antigen enzyme immunoassay in children: multicenter Italian study. Brit Med J 320:347–348

  86. 86.

    Ogata S, Kawakami E, Patricio FS et al (2001) Evaluation of invasive and non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children and adolescents. Sao Paulo Med J 119:67–80

  87. 87.

    Oğünç D, Artan R, Ongüt G et al (2003) Evaluation of a Western blot technique (Helicoblot 2.1) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Pathology 35:157–160

  88. 88.

    Okasanen K, Kainulainen H, Ruuska T et al (1999) Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Finnish children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutri 28:252–256

  89. 89.

    Okuda M, Nakazawa T, Booka M et al (2004) Evaluation of a urine antibody test for Helicobacter pylori in Japanese children. J Pediatr 144:196–199

  90. 90.

    Oleastro M, Matos R, Cabral J et al (2002) Evaluation of a Western blot test Helico Blot 2.1 in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in a pediatric population. Helicobacter 7:210–215

  91. 91.

    Orhan D, Kale G, Saltık-Temizel İ et al (2008) Immunohistochemical detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric biopsies of urea breath test-positive and -negative pediatric patients. Turk J Pediatr 50:34–39

  92. 92.

    Ozcay F, Kocak N, Tamizel I et al (2004) Helicobacter pylori infection in Turkish children: comparison of diagnostic tests, evaluation of eradication rate, and changes in symptoms after eradication. Helicobacter 9:242–248

  93. 93.

    Pelerito A, Oleastro M, Lopes A et al (2006) Evaluation of rapid test Assure® Helicobacter pylori for diagnosis of H. pylori in pediatric population. J Micro 66:331–335

  94. 94.

    Portorreal-Miranda A, Strehl-Machado R, Kawakami E (2008) Spontaneous elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of asymptomatic school children by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay polyclonal antigen in stool. J Clin Gastroenterol 42:143–146

  95. 95.

    Raguza D, Granato C, Kawakami E (2005) Evaluation of the stool antigen test for Helicobacter pylori in children and adolescents. Dig Dis Sci 50:453–457

  96. 96.

    Raymond J, Sauvestre C, Kalach J et al (1999) Evaluation of a new serologic test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18:192–198

  97. 97.

    Raymond J, Sauvestre C, Kalach N et al (2000) Immunoblotting and serology for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:118–121

  98. 98.

    Ricuarte R, Gutierrez O, Cardona H et al (2005) Atrophic gastritis in young children and adolescents. J Clin Pathol 58:1189–1193

  99. 99.

    Ritchie B, Brewster D, Tran C et al (2009) Lack of diagnostic accuracy of the monoclonal stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in young Australian aboriginal children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:287–289

  100. 100.

    Rocha G, Oliveira A, Queiroz D et al (2000) Immunoblot analysis of humoral immune response to Helicobacter pylori in children with and without duodenal ulcer. J Clin Microbiol 38:1777–1781

  101. 101.

    Roggero P, Bonfiglio A, Luzzani S et al (2002) Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test: a method to confirm eradication in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 140:775–777

  102. 102.

    Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Brenner H (2000) Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection with a novel stool antigen-based assay in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:364–366

  103. 103.

    Russmann H, Adler K, Haas P et al (2001) Rapid and accurate determination of genotypic clarithromycin resistance in cultured Helicobacter pylori by fluorescent in situ hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 39:4142–4144

  104. 104.

    Russmann H, Feydt-Schmidt A, Adler K et al (2003) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in paraffin-embedded and in shock-frozen gastric biopsy samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 41:813–815

  105. 105.

    Russmann H, Volkhard A, Kempf A et al (2001) Comparison of fluorescent in situ hybridization and conventional culturing for detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol 39:304–308

  106. 106.

    Rutigliano V, Ieradi E, Francavilla R et al (1999) Helicobacter pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia in childhood: clinical pattern, diagnostic techniques, and bacterial strains. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutri 28:296–300

  107. 107.

    Sabbi T, de-Angelis P, Colistro F et al (2005) Efficacy of noninvasive tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric patients. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:238–241

  108. 108.

    Schabereiter-Gurtner C, Hirschl A, Dragosics B et al (2004) Novel real-time PCR assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection and simultaneous clarithromycin susceptibility testing of stool and biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol 42:4512–4518

  109. 109.

    Schwarzer A, Lottspeich C, Rüssmann H et al (2007) Evaluation of a novel rapid one-step monoclonal chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool from children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:475–480

  110. 110.

    Serrano C, González C, Rollan A et al (2008) Lack of diagnostic utility of specific immunoglobulin M in Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:612–617

  111. 111.

    Shaikh S, Khaled M, Islam A et al (2005) Evaluation of stool antigen test for Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children from a developing country using 13C-urea breath test as a standard. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:552–554

  112. 112.

    Shepherd A, Williams C, Doherty C et al (2000) Comparison of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigens in the faeces with the urea breath test. Arch Dis Child 83:268–270

  113. 113.

    Shimizu T, Yarita Y, Haruna H et al (2003) Urine-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antibodies in children. J Pediatr Child Health 39:606–610

  114. 114.

    Sökücü S, Süoğlu O, Türkkan E et al (2002) Helicobacter pylori infection in Turkish children with gastrointestinal symptoms and evaluation of serology. Turk J Pediatr 44:102–108

  115. 115.

    Treepongkaruna S, Nopchinda S, Taweewongsounton A et al (2006) A rapid serologic test and immunoblotting for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Trop Pediatr 6:1–5

  116. 116.

    Van-Doorn O, Bosman D, Van-Hoff B et al (2001) Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:1061–1065

  117. 117.

    Vega A, Alarcón T, Domingo D, López-Brea M (2007) Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori in frozen gastric biopsies from pediatric patients by a commercially available fluorescent in situ hybridization. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59:421–423

  118. 118.

    Velapatiño B, Balqui J, Gilman R et al (2006) Validation of string test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections. J Clin Microbiol 44:976–980

  119. 119.

    Vincent P, Michaud L, Martin-de-Lasalle E et al (1999) 3C urea breath test and gastric mucosal colonization by Helicobacter pylori in children: quantitative relation and usefulness for diagnosis of infection. Helicobacter 4:233–237

  120. 120.

    Vinette K, Gibney K, Proujansky R, Fawcett P (2004) Comparison of PCR and clinical laboratory tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric patients. BMC Microbiol 4:5–12

  121. 121.

    Wang S, Yu F, Lo Y et al (2003) The clinical utility of string-PCR test in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection. Hepato Gastroenterol 50:1208–1213

  122. 122.

    Yañez P, AM-dl G, Perez-Perez G et al (2000) Comparison of invasive and noninvasive methods for the diagnosis and evaluation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Arch Med Res 31:415–421

  123. 123.

    Yang H, Ko J, Seo J (2008) Does the diagnostic accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test vary with age even after the application of urea hydrolysis rate? Helicobacter 13:239–244

  124. 124.

    Yang H, Seo J (2005) Diagnostic accuracy of the 13C urea breath test in children: adjustment of the cut-off value according to age. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:264–269

  125. 125.

    Yang H, Seo J (2008) Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSA) tests in children before and after eradication therapy: comparison of rapid immunochromatographic assay and HpSA ELISA. Dig Dis Sci 53:2053–2058

  126. 126.

    Yee Y, Yip K, Que T et al (2002) Efficacy of enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigens in frozen stool specimens: local validation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1739–1742

  127. 127.

    Yoshimura N, Tajiri H, Sawada A et al (2001) A 13C urea breath test in children with Helicobacter pylori infection: assessment of eradication therapy and follow-up after treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 36:606–611

Download references

Acknowledgment

The chairs of the North American/European consensus conference that took place in Munich December 2007 to establish pediatric guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori are aware of this manuscript and approved a separate publication. All coauthors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Drs. Guarner, Kalach, and Elitsur have not received financial support or have interests in any of the commercial entities named in the manuscript. Dr Koletzko has recently received a grant of 24,000 € from Oxoid (Ely) Ltd. Thermo Fisher Scientific.

Author information

Correspondence to Jeannette Guarner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Guarner, J., Kalach, N., Elitsur, Y. et al. Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests in children: review of the literature from 1999 to 2009. Eur J Pediatr 169, 15–25 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-009-1033-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Diagnosis
  • Children
  • Histology
  • Serology
  • Urea breath tests
  • Stool