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Risk factors for pulmonary candidiasis in preterm infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g

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Abstract

To evaluate the epidemiology of pulmonary candidiasis (PC) and to identify risk factors in premature infants during the 1st month of life, all infants with a birth weight <1250 g admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit with PC between January 1994 and December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Infants with PC ( n =20) were compared with a control group ( n =20), matched for gestational age and birth weight, with regard to possible perinatal and postnatal risk factors. Among 325 infants with a birth weight <1250 g, 20 out of 233 ventilated infants (8.6%) developed PC. Candida albicans ( n =12) and C. parapsilosis ( n =4) were the predominant isolates. Neonates with PC were significantly different from controls with regard to male prevalence ( P =0.002), rates of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) ( P =0.02), longer duration of antibiotic therapy ( P =0.01) and of ventilation ( P =0.02). The difference between groups did not attain significance with regard to postnatal dexamethasone administration, duration of central vein catheterisation and duration of parenteral nutrition. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated as significant predictors of PC, among perinatal data, the male gender (OR =26.3; 95%CI 2.44 to 284) and PPROM (OR =12.3; 95%CI 1.16 to 130) and, among postnatal data, the duration of ventilation (OR =1.54; 95%CI 1.01 to 2.34). Conclusion:The presence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and the duration of ventilation are significant risk factors for developing pulmonary candidiasis and should be considered in the preventive efforts to reduce this disease in infants with a birth weight <1250 g.

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Abbreviations

BPD :

bronchopulmonary dysplasia

GA :

gestational age

NICU :

neonatal intensive care unit

PC :

pulmonary candidiasis

PPROM :

preterm premature rupture of membranes

TAF :

tracheobronchial aspirate fluid

VLBW :

very low birth weight

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Correspondence to Simonetta Frezza.

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Frezza, S., Maggio, L., De Carolis, M.P. et al. Risk factors for pulmonary candidiasis in preterm infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g. Eur J Pediatr 164, 88–92 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-004-1571-1

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Keywords

  • Candida infections
  • Pulmonary candidiasis
  • Preterm infants
  • Risk factors