Biogenic Au@ZnO core–shell nanocomposites kill Staphylococcus aureus without provoking nuclear damage and cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblasts cells under hyperglycemic condition with enhanced wound healing proficiency
- 56 Downloads
The aim of the present study is focused on the synthesis of Au@ZnO core–shell nanocomposites, where zinc oxide is overlaid on biogenic gold nanoparticles obtained from Hibiscus Sabdariffa plant extract. Optical property of nanocomposites is investigated using UV–visible spectroscopy and crystal structure has been determined using X-ray crystallography (XRD) technique. The presence of functional groups on the surface of Au@ZnO core–shell nanocomposites has been observed by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Electron microscopy studies revealed the morphology of the above core–shell nanocomposites. The synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MRSH). The microbes are notorious cross contaminant and are known to cause infection in open wounds. The possible antimicrobial mechanism of as synthesized nanomaterials has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and obtained data suggests that the antimicrobial activity could be due to release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Present study has revealed that surface varnishing of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles through zinc oxide has improved its antibacterial proficiency against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas reducing its toxic effect towards mouse fibroblast cells under normal and hyperglycaemic condition. Further studies have been performed in mice model to understand the wound healing efficiency of Au@ZnO nanocomposites. The results obtained suggest the possible and effective use of as synthesized core shell nanocomposites in wound healing.
KeywordsBiofilm Core–shell Gold Staphylococcus aureus Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Zinc oxide
This work is supported by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India (Grant No. BT/AB/08/01/2008-III). Md. Imran Khan is thankful to University Grant Commission, New Delhi for supporting him through UGC-MANF programme.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest related to this article.
- 6.David MZ, Daum RS (2017) Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–59Google Scholar
- 12.Alves MM, Bouchami O, Tavares A, Córdoba L, Santos CF, Miragaia M, de Fatima Montemor M (2017) New insights into antibiofilm effect of a nanosized ZnO coating against the pathogenic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:28157–28167CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Mishra P, Ray S, Sinha S, Das B, Khan MI, Behera SK, Yun SI, Tripathy SK, Mishra A (2016) Facile bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and evaluation of its cytotoxicity against U87 glioblastoma cells under hyperglycemic condition. Biochem Eng J 105:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.O’Toole GA (2011) Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay. J Vis Exp 47:2437Google Scholar
- 23.Wang J, Wei Y, Zhao S, Zhou Y, He W, Zhang Y, Deng W (2017) The analysis of viability for mammalian cells treated at different temperatures and its application in cell shipment. PLoS One 12:0176120Google Scholar
- 25.Sett A, Gadewar M, Sharma P, Deka M, Bora U (2016) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Dillenia indica. Adv Nat Sci: Nanosci Nanotechnol 7:025005Google Scholar
- 36.Almeida GC, dos Santos MM, Lima NG, Cidral TA, Melo MC, Lima KC (2014) Prevalence and factors associated with wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients in inland northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 14:328CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 37.Ortines RV, Cheng L, Cohen TS, Gami A, Dillen CA, Ashbaugh AG, Miller RJ, Wang Y, Tkaczyk C, Sellman BR, Miller LS (2017) Anti-alpha-toxin immunoprohylaxis reduces disease severity against a Staphylococcus aureus full-thickness skin wound infection in immunocompetent and diabetic mice. J Immunol 198:77-20Google Scholar
- 39.Todar K (2013) Structure and function of bacterial cells. http://textbookofbacteriology.net/structure.html
- 41.Seil JT, Webster TJ (2012) Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Int J Nanomed 7:2767Google Scholar
- 52.De Stefano D, Carnuccio R, Maiuri MC (2012) Nanomaterials toxicity and cell death modalities. J Drug DelGoogle Scholar
- 54.Hayes A, Bakand S, Joeng L, Winder C (2008) In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of selected nanoparticles using human skin fibroblasts. AATEX J 14:397–400Google Scholar
- 55.Powell HM, Armour AD, Boyce ST (2011) Fluorescein diacetate for determination of cell viability in 3D fibroblast-collagen-GAG constructs. In: Mammalian cell viability, Humana Press, 115–126Google Scholar
- 68.Sehgal PB (1990) Interleukin-6: molecular pathophysiology. J. Investig. Dermatol. 94Google Scholar
- 77.Ding Y, Jiang Z, Saha K, Kim CS, Kim ST, Landis RF, Rotello VM (2014) Gold nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery. Mol. Ther. 22-1075-1083Google Scholar