Grey matter volume in developmental speech and language disorder
Developmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental speech disorder (DSD) are common, yet their etiologies are not well understood. Atypical volume of the inferior and posterior language regions and striatum have been reported in DLD; however, variability in both methodology and study findings limits interpretations. Imaging research within DSD, on the other hand, is scarce. The present study compared grey matter volume in children with DLD, DSD, and typically developing speech and language. Compared to typically developing controls, children with DLD had larger volume in the right cerebellum, possibly associated with the procedural learning deficits that have been proposed in DLD. Children with DSD showed larger volume in the left inferior occipital lobe compared to controls, which may indicate a compensatory role of the visual processing regions due to sub-optimal auditory-perceptual processes. Overall, these findings suggest that different neural systems may be involved in the specific deficits related to DLD and DSD.
KeywordsLanguage Speech Child VBM MRI
LP is funded by an Australian Government Research Training Program Stipend Scholarship. AM is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council Career (NHMRC) Development Fellowship #607315 and Practitioner Fellowship #1105008; NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Child Language #1023493; NHMRC CRE Moving Ahead #1023043; and HEARing Collaborative Research Centre. This research is also supported by the CRE in Child Language #1023493 and the Victorian Government’s Operational Infrastructure Support Program. Thank you to Angela Mayes, Cristina Mei, and Sarah Barton for assistance with data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Darby D, Walsh K (2005) Walsh’s neuropsychology: a clinical approach, 5th edn. Elsevier, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
- Girbau-Massana D, Garcia-Marti G, Marti-Bonmati L, Schwartz RG (2014) Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with specific language impairment and/or reading disability. Neuropsychologia 56:90–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldman R, Fristoe M (2000) The goldman-fristoe test of articulation, 2nd edn. American Guidance Service Inc, Circle PinesGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL (2004) Kaufman brief intelligence test, 2nd edn (KBIT-II). Pearson, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
- Lee JC, Nopoulos PC, Tomblin BJ (2013) Abnormal subcortical components of the corticostriatal system in young adults with DLI: a combined structural MRI and DTI study. Neuropsychologia 51:2154–2161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.07.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leonard LB (2015) Language symptoms and their possible sources of specific language impairment. In: Bavin E, Naigles LR (eds) The Cambridge handbook of child language, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Lewis BA, Freebairn L, Tag J, Ciesla AA, Iyengar SK, Stein CM, Taylor HG (2015) Adolescent outcomes of children with early speech sound disorders with and without language impairment. Am J Speech-Lang Pathol 24:150–163. https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0075 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Semel E, Wiig E, Secord W (2006) Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals—Australian standardised edition, 4th edn. Harcourt Assessment, SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Tkach JA, Chen X, Freebairn LA, Schmithorst VJ, Holland SK, Lewis BA (2011) Neural correlates of phonological processing in speech sound disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain Lang 119:42–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2011.02.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ullman MT (2016) The declarative/procedural model: a neurobiological model of language. In: Hickok G, Small SL (eds) Neurobiology of language. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 953–968. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-407794-2.00076-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler D (1999) Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler D (2011) Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence, 2nd edn. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio TXGoogle Scholar
- Wiig E, Secord W, Semel E (2006) Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-preschool: Australian standardised edition, 2nd edn. Harcourt Assessment, SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Wilkinson GS, Robertson GJ (2006) Wide range achievement test, 4th edn. Psychological Assessment Resources, LutzGoogle Scholar
- Worsley KJ, Andermann M, Koulis T, MacDonald D, Evans AC (1999) Detecting changes in nonisotropic images. Hum Brain Mapp 8:98–101. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1999)8:2/3%3c98:AID-HBM5%3e3.0.CO;2-F CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar