The SLC6A3 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms association in the time estimation
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The present study investigated the association of 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms with a time estimation task performance.
Materials and methods
One hundred and eight men in a Brazilian Northeast population (18–32 years old) participated in the experiment. The 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms were associated alone and combined to absolute error (AE) and relative error (RE) in a time estimation task (target duration: 1 s, 4 s, 7 s and 9 s).
We found an association of the behavioral variable with intron 8 VNTR for the time intervals of 1 s and 9 s (p < 0.001) and polymorphisms combinatorial effect for 1 s (p ≤ 0.05).
The intron 8 VNTR polymorphism and the combinatorial effect can modulate the time estimate in the domain of supra seconds, and thus our study indicates a role of the dopamine transporter in the neurobiological areas related to the time intervals judgment.
KeywordsTime perception Dopamine Time estimation SLC6A3 3′-UTR VNTR SLC6A3 intron 8 VNTR
Conceived and designed the experiments: VM, TO, GRP, and ST. Performed the experiments: VM, TO, AG, and VL. Analyzed the data: VM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FM, KR, GRP, HFF, BV, PR, MC, DSG and VHB. Wrote the paper: VM. Headed the molecular genetic analysis: VM, TO, ST, and GRP.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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