The SLC6A3 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms association in the time estimation
- 47 Downloads
The present study investigated the association of 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms with a time estimation task performance.
Materials and methods
One hundred and eight men in a Brazilian Northeast population (18–32 years old) participated in the experiment. The 3′-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms were associated alone and combined to absolute error (AE) and relative error (RE) in a time estimation task (target duration: 1 s, 4 s, 7 s and 9 s).
We found an association of the behavioral variable with intron 8 VNTR for the time intervals of 1 s and 9 s (p < 0.001) and polymorphisms combinatorial effect for 1 s (p ≤ 0.05).
The intron 8 VNTR polymorphism and the combinatorial effect can modulate the time estimate in the domain of supra seconds, and thus our study indicates a role of the dopamine transporter in the neurobiological areas related to the time intervals judgment.
KeywordsTime perception Dopamine Time estimation SLC6A3 3′-UTR VNTR SLC6A3 intron 8 VNTR
Conceived and designed the experiments: VM, TO, GRP, and ST. Performed the experiments: VM, TO, AG, and VL. Analyzed the data: VM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FM, KR, GRP, HFF, BV, PR, MC, DSG and VHB. Wrote the paper: VM. Headed the molecular genetic analysis: VM, TO, ST, and GRP.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Buhusi M, Olsen K, Yang BZ, Buhusi CV (2016) Stress-induced executive dysfunction in gdnf-deficient mice, a mouse model of parkinsonism. Front Behav Neurosci 21(10):114Google Scholar
- Franke B, Vasquez AA, Johansson S, Hoogman M, Romanos J, Boreatti- Hu¨mmer A, Reif A (2010) Multicenter analysis of the SLC6A3/DAT1 VNTR haplotype in persistent ADHD suggests differential involvement of the gene in childhood and persistent ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 35(3):656–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hawi Z, Kent L, Hill M, Anney RJ, Brookes KJ, Barry E et al (2010) ADHD and DAT1: further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 153B:97–102Google Scholar
- Marinho V, Oliveira T, Bandeira J, Pinto GR, Gomes A, Lima V, Magalhães F, Rocha K, Ayres C, Carvalho V, Velasques B, Ribeiro P, Orsini M, Bastos VH, Gupta D, Teixeira S (2018a) Genetic influence alters the brain synchronism in perception and timing. J Biomed Sci 25(1):61. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-018-0463-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rammsayer TH (1999) Neuropharmacological evidence for different timing mechanisms in humans. Q J Exp Psychol Sect B 52(3):273–278Google Scholar
- Rommelse NN, Altink ME, Arias-Vásquez A, Buschgens CJ, Fliers E, Faraone SV, Buitelaar JK, Sergeant JA, Franke B, Oosterlaan J (2008) A review and analysis of the relationship between neuropsychological measures and DAT1 in ADHD. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B(8):1536–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Späti J, Aritake S, Meyer AH, Kitamura S, Hida A, Higuchi S, Moriguchi Y, Mishima K (2015) Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing. Front Integr Neurosci 17:9:15Google Scholar
- Teixeira S, Machado S, Paes F, Velasques B, Silva JG, Sanfim AL, Minc D, Anghinah R, Menegaldo LL, Salama M, Cagy M, Nardi AE, Pöppel E, Bao Y, Szelag E, Ribeiro P, Arias-Carrión O (2013) Time perception distortion in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 12:567–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tong JH, Cummins TD, Johnson BP, McKinley LA, Pickering HE, Fanning P, Stefanac NR, Newman DP, Hawi Z, Bellgrove MA (2015) An association between a dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) haplotype and ADHD symptom measures in nonclinical adults. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 168B(2):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar