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Brain processing of a configural vs elemental odor mixture in the newborn rabbit

Abstract

Organisms are surrounded throughout life by chemically complex odors. How individuals process an odorant within a mixture or a mixture as a whole is a key question in neuroethology and chemical senses. This question is addressed here by using newborn rabbits, which can be rapidly conditioned to a new stimulus by single association with the mammary pheromone. After conditioning to ethyl maltol (odorant B), pups behaviorally respond to B and an A′B′ mixture (68/32 ratio) but not to ethyl isobutyrate (odorant A) or an AB mixture (30/70 ratio). This suggests elemental and configural perception of A′B′ and AB, respectively. We then explored the neural substrates underlying the processing of these mixtures with the hypothesis that processing varies according to perception. Pups were pseudoconditioned or conditioned to B on postnatal day 3 before exposure to B, A′B′ or AB on day 4. Fos expression was not similar between groups (mainly in the olfactory bulb and posterior piriform cortex) suggesting a differential processing of the stimuli that might reflect either stimulus complexity or conditioning effect. Thus, the ratio of components in A′B′ vs AB leads to differential activation of the olfactory system which may contribute to elemental and configural percepts of these mixtures. In addition, together with recent behavioral data, this highlights that configural perception occurs even in relatively immature animals, emphasizing the value of the newborn rabbit for exploration of odor mixture processing from molecules to brain and behavior.

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Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank Valérie Saint-Giorgio, Nicolas Malaty and Florent Costilhes (Centre de Zootechnie, Dijon) as well as Camille Royer, Paul Jeanneau and Martin Saïdi for their technical assistance. The work was supported by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-2010-JCJC-1410-1 MEMOLAP grant) and pôle VITAGORA.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed were covered by ethical committee authorization no. 1608 from the University of Burgundy and no. 01273.01 from the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Author information

Correspondence to Nanette Y. Schneider or Gérard Coureaud.

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Schneider, N.Y., Datiche, F., Wilson, D.A. et al. Brain processing of a configural vs elemental odor mixture in the newborn rabbit. Brain Struct Funct 221, 2527–2539 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-015-1055-2

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Keywords

  • Olfactory system
  • Odor mixtures
  • Configural perception
  • Peripheral and central processing
  • Newborn
  • Rabbit