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Activation shift in elderly subjects across functional systems: an fMRI study

Abstract

The functional specificity of brain areas is diminished with age and accompanied by the recruitment of additional brain regions in healthy older adults. This process has repeatedly been demonstrated within distinct functional domains, in particular the visual system. However, it is yet unclear, whether this phenomenon in healthy aging, i.e., a reduced activation of task-associated areas and increased activation of additional regions, is also present across different functional systems. In the present functional imaging study, comprising 102 healthy subjects, we therefore assessed two distinct tasks engaging the sensory-motor system and the visual attention system, respectively. We found a significant interaction between age and task in the parietal operculum bilaterally. This area as a part of the sensory-motor system showed an age-related decrease in its BOLD-response to the motor task and an age-related increase of neural activity in response to the visual attention task. The opposite response pattern, i.e., reduced visual attention activation and increased response to the motor task, was observed for regions associated with the visual task: the superior parietal area 7A and the dorsal pre-motor cortex. Importantly, task performance was not correlated with age in either task. This age-by-task interaction indicates that a reduction of functional specificity in the aging brain may be counteracted by the increased recruitment of additional regions not only within, but also across functional domains. Our results thus emphasize the need for comparisons across different functional domains to gain a better understanding of age-related effects on the specificity of functional systems.

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Acknowledgments

Funding was granted by the Human Brain Project (R01-MH074457-01A1; S.B.E.), the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association within the Helmholtz Alliance on Systems Biology (Human Brain Model; S.B.E.), and the Helmholtz Alliance for Mental Health in an Aging Society (HelMA; K.A.).

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Correspondence to Christian Roski.

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Roski, C., Caspers, S., Lux, S. et al. Activation shift in elderly subjects across functional systems: an fMRI study. Brain Struct Funct 219, 707–718 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-013-0530-x

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Keywords

  • Aging
  • Functional specificity
  • Dedifferentiation
  • FMRI