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A brave new world


Whereas up to 1950s the two major activities of academic Pathology—diagnostic and experimental—were both practiced by a single individual, thereafter, scientific, academic and economic factors created the conditions that favored monothematic practitioners. In this white paper, I argue that now, at the beginning of the 21st century, this separation is detrimental to the discipline, and I propose changes that would reunite the two strands.

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Fig. 1


  1. Costa J (2008) Systems medicine in oncology. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 5(3):117.

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Correspondence to Jose Costa.

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Costa, J. A brave new world. Virchows Arch 473, 141–144 (2018).

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  • Academic pathology
  • Research in pathology
  • Diagnostic practice
  • Diagnostics
  • Postgraduate training