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Association of coexisting morphological umbilical cord abnormality and clinical cord compromise with hypoxic and thrombotic placental histology

Abstract

To assess the usefulness and limitations of placental histology when morphological umbilical cord (UC) abnormality coexists with clinical UC compromise, 5634 consecutive placentas were divided into four groups and statistically compared: group 1—182 placentas from pregnancies with clinical features of UC compromise (variable decelerations, UC entanglement, prolapse, or true knot at delivery); group 2—1355 placentas with abnormal UC morphology or insertion; group 3—152 placentas with at least one phenotype from group 1 and one from group 2; group 4—3945 placentas with no clinical or morphological UC-related phenotypes (control group).Differences were analyzed by ANOVA or χ 2. Of 68 phenotypes studied, 13 clinical and 18 placental phenotypes were statistically significant. In group 1, 2 phenotypes were most common (oligohydramnios and abnormal fetal heart rate tracing). In group 2, 6 phenotypes were most common, including 4 clinical (abnormal umbilical artery Dopplers, nonmacerated stillbirth, multiple pregnancy, and fetal growth restriction) and 2 placental. In group 3, 23 phenotypes were most common, including 7 clinical (gestational hypertension, polyhydramnios, induction of labor, cesarean section, macerated stillbirth, congenital malformations, and abnormal 3rd stage of labor) and 16 placental. The existence of clinical signs of UC compromise alone was associated with the absence of pathomorphological placental abnormalities. However, the coexistence of clinical and abnormal morphological UC phenotypes was statistically significantly associated with placental histological signs of decreased fetal blood flow, hypoxia (acute and chronic post uterine), shallow placental implantation, and/or amnion nodosum. Thus, confirmation of clinical UC compromise should not be expected on placental examination if no morphological UC abnormality or abnormal UC insertion has been found.

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Author information

Correspondence to Jerzy Stanek.

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Stanek, J. Association of coexisting morphological umbilical cord abnormality and clinical cord compromise with hypoxic and thrombotic placental histology. Virchows Arch 468, 723–732 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-016-1921-1

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Keywords

  • Umbilical cord
  • Placenta
  • Hypoxia
  • Stasis-induced fetal thrombotic vasculopathy