Behavioral realism and lifelike psychophysiological responses in virtual reality by the example of a height exposure

  • Joanna KiskerEmail author
  • Thomas Gruber
  • Benjamin Schöne
Original Article


Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly gaining importance as a valuable methodical tool for psychological research. The greatest benefit of using VR is generating rich, complex and vivid, but still highly controllable settings. As VR has been found to elicit lifelike psychophysiological and emotional responses, we examined by means of a height exposure whether VR resembles physical reality to the necessary degree to constitute a suitable framework for investigating real-life behavior in a controlled experimental context. As hypothesized, participants behaved in VR exactly as would be appropriate in a real environment: Being exposed to great height, participants walked significantly slower across a virtual steel girder construction protruding from a high-rise building as compared to participants who traversed the very same construction on the ground level. In the height condition, this realistic behavior could be predicted on basis of the participants’ trait anxiety. Aligned with the behavioral responses, they showed realistic psychophysiological responses, i.e., an elevated heart rate when exposed to height. Interestingly, participants of the height condition reported a greater sense of presence, which indicates that emotions have an elevating effect on presence. As a conclusion, our findings provide further evidence that VR evokes lifelike responses at both behavioral and psychophysiological level and therefore increases ecological validity of psychological experiments.



We thank Rosa M. Puca for her most valuable comments on an early version of the manuscript and for her advice on statistical analysis.

Author contributions

All authors contributed to the study design. Testing, data collection and data analysis were performed by JK. JK and BS performed the data interpretation under the supervision of TG. JK drafted the manuscript, and BS and TG provided critical revisions. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for submission.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the local ethic committee of Osnabrueck University and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 2 (MP4 88775 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (MP4 103801 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (MP4 96169 kb)

426_2019_1244_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (367 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 367 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Kisker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thomas Gruber
    • 1
  • Benjamin Schöne
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyOsnabrück UniversityOsnabrückGermany

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