Advertisement

When perception intrudes on 2D grasping: evidence from Garner interference

  • Tzvi GanelEmail author
  • Aviad Ozana
  • Melvyn A. Goodale
Original Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

When participants reach out to pick up a real 3-D object, their grip aperture reflects the size of the object well before contact is made. At the same time, the classical psychophysical laws and principles of relative size and shape that govern visual perception do not appear to intrude into the control of such movements, which are instead tuned only to the relevant dimension for grasping. In contrast, accumulating evidence suggests that grasps directed at flat 2D objects are not immune to perceptual effects. Thus, in 2D but not 3D grasping, the aperture of the fingers has been shown to be affected by relative and contextual information about the size and shape of the target object. A notable example of this dissociation comes from studies of Garner interference, which signals holistic processing of shape. Previous research has shown that 3D grasping shows no evidence for Garner interference but 2D grasping does (Freud & Ganel, 2015). In a recent study published in this journal (Löhr-Limpens et al., 2019), participants were presented with 2D objects in a Garner paradigm. The pattern of results closely replicated the previously published results with 2D grasping. Unfortunately, the authors, who appear to be unaware the potential differences between 2D and 3D grasping, used their findings to draw an overgeneralized and unwarranted conclusion about the relation between 3D grasping and perception. In this short methodological commentary, we discuss current literature on aperture shaping during 2D grasping and suggest that researchers should play close attention to the nature of the target stimuli they use before drawing conclusions about visual processing for perception and action.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by an Israel Science Foundation (ISF) Grant 274/15 to Tzvi Ganel and to Daniel Algom.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Tzvi Ganel declares that he has no conflict of interest. Aviad Ozana declares that he has no conflict of interest. Melvyn A. Goodale declares that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Afgin, O., Sagi, N., Nisky, I., Ganel, T., & Berman, S. (2017). Visuomotor resolution in telerobotic grasping with transmission delays. Frontiers in Robotics and AI.  https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2017.00054.Google Scholar
  2. Algom, D., & Fitousi, D. (2016). Half a century of research on Garner interference and the separability–integrality distinction. Psychologial Bulletin, 142(12), 1352–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayala, N., Binsted, G., & Heath, M. (2018). Hand anthropometry and the limits of aperture separation determine the utility of Weber’s law in grasping and manual estimation. Experimental Brain Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-018-5311-6.Google Scholar
  4. Bruno, N., Uccelli, S., Viviani, E., & de’Sperati, C. (2016). Both vision-for-perception and vision-for-action follow Weber’s law at small object sizes, but violate it at larger sizes. Neuropsychologia, 91, 327–334.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.08.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christiansen, J. H., Christensen, J., Grünbaum, T., & Kyllingsbæk, S. (2014). A common representation of spatial features drives action and perception: Grasping and judging object features within trials. PLoS One, 9(5), e94744.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davarpanah Jazi, S., & Heath, M. (2016). Pantomime-grasping: Advance knowledge of haptic feedback availability supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 197.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davarpanah Jazi, S., Hosang, S., & Heath, M. (2015a). Memory delay and haptic feedback influence the dissociation of tactile cues for perception and action. Neuropsychologia, 71, 91–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davarpanah Jazi, S., Yau, M., Westwood, D. A., & Heath, M. (2015b). Pantomime-grasping: The ‘return’ of haptic feedback supports the absolute specification of object size. Experimental Brain Research, 233(7), 2029–2040.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-015-4274-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eloka, O., Feuerhake, F., Janczyk, M., & Franz, V. H. (2014). Garner-interference in left-handed awkward grasping. Psychological Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-014-0585-1.Google Scholar
  10. Freud, E., & Ganel, T. (2015). Visual control of action directed toward two-dimensional objects relies on holistic processing of object shape. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1377–1382.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0803-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freud, E., Macdonald, S. N., Chen, J., Quinlan, D. J., Goodale, M. A., & Culham, J. C. (2018). Getting a grip on reality: Grasping movements directed to real objects and images rely on dissociable neural representations. Cortex, 98, 34–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.02.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ganel, T. (2015). Weber’s law in grasping. Journal of Vision.  https://doi.org/10.1167/15.8.18.Google Scholar
  13. Ganel, T., Chajut, E., & Algom, D. (2008a). Visual coding for action violates fundamental psychophysical principles. Current Biology, 18(14), R599–R601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Tanzer, M., & Algom, D. (2008b). Response: When does grasping escape Weber’s law? Current Biology, 18(23), R1090–R1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ganel, T., Freud, E., Chajut, E., & Algom, D. (2012). Accurate visuomotor control below the perceptual threshold of size discrimination. PLoS One.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036253.Google Scholar
  16. Ganel, T., Freud, E., & Meiran, N. (2014). Action is immune to the effects of Weber’s law throughout the entire grasping trajectory. Journal of Vision.  https://doi.org/10.1167/14.7.11.Google Scholar
  17. Ganel, T., & Goodale, M. (2003). Visual control of action but not perception requires analytical processing of object shape. Nature, 426(6967), 664–667.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ganel, T., & Goodale, M. A. (2014). Variability-based Garner interference for perceptual estimations but not for grasping. Experimental Brain Research, 232(6), 1751–1758.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-014-3867-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ganel, T., Namdar, G., & Mirsky, A. (2017). Bimanual grasping does not adhere to Weber’s law. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 6467.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06799-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gescheider, G. A. (1985). Psychophysics: Method, theory, and application (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Glover, S. R., & Dixon, P. (2001). Dynamic illusion effects in a reaching task: Evidence for separate visual representations in the planning and control of reaching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(3), 560–572.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.27.3.560.Google Scholar
  22. Gomez, M. A., Skiba, R. M., & Snow, J. C. (2018). Graspable objects grab attention more than images do. Psychological Science, 29(2), 206–218.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617730599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodale, M. A. (2011). Transforming vision into action. Vision Research, 51(13), 1567–1587.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2010.07.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodale, M. A. (2014). How (and why) the visual control of action differs from visual perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1785), 20140337.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.0337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodale, M. A., & Ganel, T. (2015). Different modes of visual organization for perception and for action. In J. Wagemans (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of perceptual organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15(1), 20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodale, M. A., Westwood, D. A., & Milner, A. D. (2004). Two distinct modes of control for object-directed action. Progress in Brain Research, 144, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heath, M., Holmes, S. A., Mulla, A., & Binsted, G. (2012). Grasping time does not influence the early adherence of aperture shaping to Weber’s law. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 332.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heath, M., & Manzone, J. (2017). Manual estimations of functionally graspable target objects adhere to Weber’s law. Experimental Brain Research, 235, 1701–1707.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4913-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heath, M., Manzone, J., Khan, M., & Davarpanah Jazi, S. (2017). Vision for action and perception elicit dissociable adherence to Weber’s law across a range of ‘graspable’ target objects. Experimental Brain Research, 235, 3003–3012.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-5025-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heath, M., Mulla, A., Holmes, S. A., & Smuskowitz, L. R. (2011). The visual coding of grip aperture shows an early but not late adherence to Weber’s law. Neuroscince Letters, 490(3), 200–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.12.051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hesse, C., & Schenk, T. (2013). Findings from the Garner-paradigm do not support the “how” versus “what” distinction in the visual brain. Behavioral Brain Research, 239, 164–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holmes, S. A., & Heath, M. (2013). Goal-directed grasping: The dimensional properties of an object influence the nature of the visual information mediating aperture shaping. Brain and Cognition, 82(1), 18–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holmes, S. A., Lohmus, J., McKinnon, S., Mulla, A., & Heath, M. (2013). Distinct visual cues mediate aperture shaping for grasping and pantomime-grasping tasks. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(5), 431–439.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2013.818930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holmes, S. A., Mulla, A., Binsted, G., & Heath, M. (2011). Visually and memory-guided grasping: Aperture shaping exhibits a time-dependent scaling to Weber’s law. Vision Research, 51(17), 1941–1948.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2011.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hosang, S., Chan, J., Davarpanah Jazi, S., & Heath, M. (2016). Grasping a 2D object: Terminal haptic feedback supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Experimental Brain Research, 234(4), 945–954.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-015-4521-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jakobson, L. S., & Goodale, M. A. (1991). Factors affecting higher-order movement planning: A kinematic analysis of human prehension. Experimental Brain Research, 86, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Janczyk, M., Franz, V. H., & Kunde, W. (2010). Grasping for parsimony: Do some motor actions escape dorsal processing? Neuropsychologia, 48, 3405–3415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.06.034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jeannerod, M. (1984). The timing of natural prehension movements. Journal of Motor Behavior, 16(3), 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jeannerod, M. (1986). The formation of finger grip during prehension. A cortically mediated visuomotor pattern. Behavioral Brain Research, 19, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kunde, W., Landgraf, F., Paelecke, M., & Kiesel, A. (2007). Dorsal and ventral processing under dual-task conditions. Psychological Science, 18(2), 100–104.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01855.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kwok, R. M., & Braddick, O. J. (2003). When does the Titchener Circles illusion exert an effect on grasping? Two- and three-dimensional targets. Neuropsychologia, 41(8), 932–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Löhr-Limpens, M., Göhringer, F., Schenk, T., & Hesse, C. (2019). Grasping and perception are both affected by irrelevant information and secondary tasks: New evidence from the Garner paradigm. Psychological Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01151-z.Google Scholar
  44. Macdonald, S. N., & Culham, J. C. (2015). Do human brain areas involved in visuomotor actions show a preference for real tools over visually similar non-tools? Neuropsychologia, 77, 35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marini, F., Breeding, K. A., & Snow, J. C. (2019). Distinct visuo-motor brain dynamics for real-world objects versus planar images. Neuroimage.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.026.Google Scholar
  46. Monaco, S., Chen, Y., Medendorp, W. P., Crawford, J. D., Fiehler, K., & Henriques, D. Y. (2014). Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals the cortical networks for processing grasp-relevant object properties. Cerebral Cortex, 24, 1540–1554.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ozana, A., Berman, S., & Ganel, T. (2018). Grasping trajectories in a virtual environment adhere to Weber’s law. Experimental Brain Research, 236(6), 1775–1787.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-018-5265-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ozana, A., & Ganel, T. (2017). Weber’s law in 2D and 3D grasping. Psychological Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0913-3.Google Scholar
  49. Ozana, A., & Ganel, T. (2018). Dissociable effects of irrelevant context on 2D and 3D grasping. Attention Perception, and Psychophysics, 80, 564–575.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-017-1443-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ozana, A., & Ganel, T. (2019). Obeying the law: Speed-precision tradeoffs and the adherence to Weber’s law in 2D grasping. Experimental Brain Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05572-5.Google Scholar
  51. Ozana, A., Namdar, G., & Ganel, T. (2019). Active visuomotor interactions with virtual objects on touch screens adhere to Weber’s law. Psychological Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01210-5.Google Scholar
  52. Pettypiece, C. E., Goodale, M. A., & Culham, J. C. (2010). Integration of haptic and visual size cues in perception and action revealed through cross-modal conflict. Experimental Brain Research, 201, 863–873.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-009-2101-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rinsma, T., van der Kamp, J., Dicks, M., & Cañal-Bruland, R. (2017). Nothing magical: Pantomimed grasping is controlled by the ventral system. Experimental Brain Research, 235(6), 1823–1833.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4868-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Snow, J. C., Pettypiece, C. E., McAdam, T. D., McLean, A. D., Stroman, P. W., Goodale, M. A., & Culham, J. C. (2011). Bringing the real world into the fMRI scanner: Repetition effects for pictures versus real objects. Scientific Reports, 1, 130.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Snow, J. C., Skiba, R. M., Coleman, T. L., & Berryhill, M. E. (2014). Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 837.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Squires, S. D., Macdonald, S. N., Culham, J. C., & Snow, J. C. (2016). Priming tool actions: Are real objects more effective primes than pictures? Experimental Brain Research, 234, 963–976.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-015-4518-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Westwood, D. A., Chapman, C. D., & Roy, E. A. (2000). Pantomimed actions may be controlled by the ventral visual stream. Experimental Brain Research, 130(4), 545–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Whitwell, R. L., Ganel, T., Byrne, C. M., & Goodale, M. A. (2015). Real-time vision, tactile cues, and visual form agnosia: Removing haptic feedback from a “natural” grasping task induces pantomime-like grasps. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00216.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.The Brain and Mind InstituteThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations