Advertisement

Psychological Research

, Volume 83, Issue 5, pp 968–976 | Cite as

The effect of stimulus frequency, spectrum, duration, and location on temporal order judgment thresholds: distribution analysis

  • Leah FostickEmail author
  • Adi Lifshitz-Ben-Basat
  • Harvey Babkoff
Original Article
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

The present study aimed to examine whether the judgments of temporal order are made by the same “central processor” regardless of the characteristics of the sound stimuli. The influence of stimulus parameters (e.g., frequency, spectrum, duration, location) on auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) thresholds was tested in seven groups with a total of 192 participants received two-tone sequences of different: frequencies (3 groups); spectrum widths, via a pure tone and a Gaussian noise burst (1 group); durations (2 groups); or locations, via asynchronous presentation to each ear (1 group). No difference in the mean rankings of TOJ thresholds was found for frequency, spectrum, and location parameters. TOJ thresholds for the duration condition, however, were significantly longer than for any of the other conditions. Notably, the threshold distributions for all the parameters (frequency, spectrum, duration, location) differed in shape. These findings raise the question as to whether we can rely upon the mean or median threshold as truly representative of TOJ threshold data. Furthermore, the data suggest that temporal order judgments for the different stimulus parameters are processed differently. The differences observed when analyzing the data with central tendency measures, as compared to analyzing the threshold distributions, may explain some of the mixed results reported in the literature on the mechanisms involved in temporal processing of different parameters. Stimulus parameters influence TOJ threshold distributions and response patterns, and may provide additional cues, beyond the standard temporal cue inherent in the TOJ procedure, by which participants may judge the order of the stimuli.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Shira Chana Bienstock for her thorough editorial and scientific review of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Leah Fostick, Adi Lifshitz Ben-Basat and Harvey Babkoff declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Babkoff, H., Zukerman, G., Fostick, L., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2005). Effect of the diurnal rhythm and 24 h of sleep deprivation on dichotic temporal order judgment. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(1), 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babkoff, H., & Fostick, L. (2017). Age-related changes in auditory processing and speech perception: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. European Journal of Ageing, 1–13Google Scholar
  3. Ben-Artzi, E., Babkoff, H., & Fostick, L. (2011). Auditory temporal processes in the elderly. Audiology Research, 1, 21–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben-Artzi, E., Fostick, L., & Babkoff, H. (2005). Deficits in temporal-order judgments in dyslexia: Evidence from diotic stimuli differing spectrally and from dichotic stimuli differing only by perceived location. Neuropsychologia, 43(5), 714–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernasconi, F., Grivel, J., Murray, M. M., & Spierer, L. (2010). Interhemispheric coupling between the posterior sylvian regions impacts successful auditory temporal order judgment. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2579–2585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binder, M. (2015). Neural correlates of audiovisual temporal processing—comparison of temporal order and simultaneity judgments. Neuroscience, 300, 432–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eijkman, E., & Vendrik, A. J. H. (1965). Can a sensory system be specified by its internal noise? The Journal of the acoustical society of America, 37(6), 1102–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fink, M., Churan, J., & Wittmann, M. (2005). Assessment of auditory temporal-order thresholds—a comparison of different measurement procedures and the influences of age and gender. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 23, 281–296.Google Scholar
  9. Fink, M., Churan, J., & Wittmann, M. (2006a). Temporal processing and context dependency of phoneme discrimination in patients with aphasia. Brain and Language, 98, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fink, M., Ulbrich, P., Churan, J., & Wittmann, M. (2006b). Stimulus-dependent processing of temporal order. Behavioural Processes, 71, 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fostick, L. (2017). The effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate treatment on the adult auditory temporal order judgment threshold. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(7), 2124–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fostick, L., & Babkoff, H. (2013a). Temporal and non-temporal processes in the elderly. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 24(3), 191–199.Google Scholar
  13. Fostick, L., & Babkoff, H. (2013b). Different response patterns between auditory spectral and spatial temporal order. Experimental Psychology, 60(6), 432–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fostick, L., Babkoff, H., & Zukerman, G. (2014a). Effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception: A comparison with dyslexic readers and aging adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57, 1078–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fostick, L., Bar-El, S., & Ram-Tsur, R. (2012a). Auditory temporal processing as a specific deficit among dyslexic readers. Psychology Research, 2(2), 77–88.Google Scholar
  16. Fostick, L., Bar-El, S., & Ram-Tsur, R. (2012b). Auditory temporal processing and working memory: Two independent deficits for dyslexia. Psychology Research, 2(5), 308–318.Google Scholar
  17. Fostick, L., Eshcoli, R., Shtibelman, H., Nechemya, R., & Levi, H. (2014b). The efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic students. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(5), 1799–1807.Google Scholar
  18. Fostick, L., Wechsler, S., & Peretz, E. (2014c). Short-term learning effect in different psychoacoustic measures. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 25(3), 307–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelfand, S. A. (2005). Hearing. An introduction to psychological and physiological acoustics (4th ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  20. Heinrich, A., de la Rosa, S., & Schneider, B. A. (2014). The role of stimulus complexity, spectral overlap, and pitch for gap-detection thresholds in young and old listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 136(4), 1797–1807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirsh, I. J. (1959). Auditory perception of temporal order. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 31(6), 759–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirsh, I. J., & Sherrick, C. E., Jr. (1961). Perceived order in different sense modalities. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(5), 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kristofferson, A. B. (1967a). Attention and psychophysical time. Acta Psychologica, 27, 93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kristofferson, A. B. (1967b). Successiveness discrimination as a two-state, quantal process. Science, 158(3806), 1337–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levitt, H. C. C. H. (1971). Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics. The Journal of the Acoustical society of America, 49(2B), 467–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126(Pt 4), 841–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reed, M. A. (1989). Speech perception and the discrimination of brief auditory cues in reading disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48(2), 270–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shalev, N., Humphreys, G., & Demeyere, N. (2016). Assessing the temporal aspects of attention and its correlates in aging and chronic stroke patients. Neuropsychologia, 92, 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Szymaszek, A., Sereda, M., Pöppel, E., & Szelag, E. (2009). Individual differences in the perception of temporal order: The effect of age and cognition. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26(2), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Szymaszek, A., Szelag, E., & Sliwowska, M. (2006). Auditory perception of temporal order in humans: The effect of age, gender, listener practice and stimulus presentation mode. Neuroscience Letters, 403, 190–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tallal, P. (1980). Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and reading disabilities in children. Brain and Language, 9(2), 182–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Temple, E. (2002). Brain mechanisms in normal and dyslexic readers. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2), 178–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S. L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860–2865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Ingelghem, M., van Wieringen, A., Wouters, J., Vandenbussche, E., Onghena, P., & Ghesquiere, P. (2001). Psychophysical evidence for a general temporal processing deficit in children with dyslexia. NeuroReport, 12(16), 3603–3607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. von Steinbuchel, N., Wittmann, M., Strasburger, H., & Szelag, E. (1999). Auditory temporal-order judgement is impaired in patients with cortical lesions in posterior regions of the left hemisphere. Neuroscience Letters, 264, 168–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Warren, R. M. (1974a). Auditory pattern recognition by untrained listeners. Perception & Psychophysics, 15(3), 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Warren, R. M. (1974b). Auditory temporal discrimination by trained listeners. Cognitive Psychology, 6(2), 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Warren, R. M., & Ackroff, J. M. (1976). Two types of auditory sequence perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 20, 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Warren, R. M., & Bashford, J. A. (1993). When acoustic sequences are not perceptual sequences: The global perception of auditory patterns. Perception & psychophysics, 54(1), 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Warren, R. M., & Byrnes, D. L. (1975). Temporal discrimination of recycled tonal sequences: Pattern matching and naming of order by untrained listeners. Perception & Psychophysics, 18(4), 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warren, R. M., & Obusek, C. J. (1972). Identification of temporal order within auditory sequences. Perception & Psychophysics, 12(1), 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication DisordersAriel UniversityArielIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyBar-Ilan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael

Personalised recommendations